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Episode 257: Regurgitalites, sauropods with beaks, and dinosaur outreach


    Episode 257 is all about Kritosaurus, a hadrosaur that was discovered over 100 years in the past in New Mexico.

    We additionally interview Scott Hartman, a paleo artist and lecturer on the College of Wisconsin, Madison for the Division of Integrative Biology. He’s executed a whole bunch of skeletal drawings and his work has been featured in books, museums, and tutorial publications. Observe him on fb or twitter @skeletaldrawing or

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    On this episode, we focus on:


    • Information from poster classes and 2nd day of talks on the 2019 assembly of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology supply
      • Early Mesozoic herbivores crammed in ecological niches that had been left due to extinctions
      • Regurgitalites (fossilized vomit) are on the market, they usually can provide simply as a lot data as coprolites (fossilized poop)
      • Chemical testing of bones is trying to be a promising methodology of discovering misplaced fossil localities
      • Scott Hocknull described three profitable case research of getting the general public concerned with dinosaur discoveries throughout development initiatives and mining operations
      • Stuart Sumida confirmed an animation of evolution, utilizing a Dimetrodon and different family members
      • Ariel Marcy has a brand new collaborative sport concerning the scientific methodology, much like the sport Pandemic
      • Taissa Rodrigues taught excessive schoolers in Brazil about evolution by means of paleo artwork
      • Emanuel Tschopp discovered that sauropods from the Morrison Formation didn’t overlap as a lot as beforehand thought
      • Kayleigh Wiersma confirmed that some sauropods could have had beaks along with their enamel
    • Les Hearn and Amanda Williams revealed a paper about ache in dinosaurs, and located a whole lot of dinosaurs survived accidents that might have damage their mobility and talent to hunt or run away from predators supply
    • The Discipline Museum in Chicago has new sensory stations, together with one the place you may scent Sue the T. rex’s breath supply
    • There’s a grassroots effort in Westchester New York to guard land with dinosaur tracks and fossils supply
    • Austin, Texas, as a bizarre neon inexperienced dinosaur, referred to as Mangiasaurus rex supply
    • Particular Areas Cleveland and the Jurassic World Reside tour labored collectively to design a dinosaur bed room for Ezra Boggs, a 6-year-old with most cancers supply
    • Lego has a brand new 910 piece Dinosaur Fossils set supply

    The dinosaur of the day: Kritosaurus

    • Hadrosaurid that lived within the Late Cretaceous in what’s now New Mexico, US (Kirtland Formation)
    • Estimated to be round 30 ft (10 m) lengthy, based mostly on comparisons to different genera
    • Herbivore, and was each bipedal and quadrupedal
    • Had a broad beak to crop vegetation
    • May eat vegetation with a grinding movement much like chewing
    • Frequently changed enamel (had dental batteries with a whole bunch of enamel)
    • That is based mostly on family members (solely fragments have been discovered)
    • Kind species is Kritosaurus navajovius
    • Genus identify means “separated lizard” and refers to how the cheek bones within the incomplete sort cranium are organized
    • Generally it’s been translated as “noble lizard” (referring to the “Roman nostril” which within the authentic specimen was initially restored flat because the area was fragmented and disarticulated
    • Barnum Brown discovered the kind specimen in 1904 in San Juan County, New Mexico
    • Many of the entrance of the cranium was fragments or eroded, and Brown reconstructed it based mostly on Edmontosaurus and neglected many fragments (noticed the fragments had been totally different from Edmontosaurus however mentioned it was as a result of they had been crushed)
    • Brown wished to name the animal Nectosaurus however then discovered that identify was already getting used
    • After Gryposaurus was described in 1914, Brown modified his thoughts concerning the specimen’s snout, and provides it a Gryposaurus-like arched nasal crest, and synonymized Kritosaurus with Gryposaurus
    • This stayed the case till 1990, and there have been three species: Kritosaurus navajovius, Kritosaurus incurvimanus, and Kritosaurus notabilis (previously Gryposaurus notabilis, then reassigned Kritosaurus notabilis in Nineteen Nineties). Hadrosaurus breviceps (recognized solely from a dentary) was assigned to Kritosaurus by Lull and Wright, however this isn’t accepted anymore
    • Due to the synonymization, most depictions of Kritosaurus till 1990 look extra like Gryposaurus (there was extra Gryposaurus materials)
    • In 1990, Jack Horner and David Weishampel separated Gryposaurus and Kritosaurus, based mostly on Kritosaurus’ partial cranium (how the cranium appeared is unknown)
    • Kritosaurus incurvimanus is now thought-about to be a synonym of Gryposaurus notabilis
    • Horner described two skulls in 1922 from New Mexico that had been totally different from Gryposaurus and referred them to Kritosaurus, however in 1993 Adrian Hunt and Spencer Lucas mentioned they had been separate genera, Anasazisaurus and Naashoibitosaurus
    • Not everybody agrees with this
    • Albert Prieto-Márquez in 2013 discovered that the kind specimens of Kritosaurus and Anasazisaurus had been the identical, based mostly on the weather present in each specimens, and mentioned Anasazisaurus was a synonym of Kritosaurus however its personal species: Kritosaurus horneri
    • A Kritosaurus cranium was later present in Texas, and a partial cranium from Coahuila, Mexico, has been referred to Kritosaurus navajovius
    • Kind specimen of Kritosaurus consists of a partial cranium and decrease jaws, and a few postcranial components (a lot of the muzzle and higher beak are lacking)
    • Jim Kirkland and others discovered a partial skeleton described as Kritosaurus however Prieto-Marquez discovered it to be an indeterminate saurolophine (it was bigger than different recognized specimens, at 36 ft (11 m) lengthy)
    • Had a heavy, rectangular-ish maxilla, and the decrease beak had tooth-like outlines
    • Had a novel crest (based mostly on the cranium of the Anasazisaurus specimen) with some bone from the nasals that got here between and above the eyes and folded again below itself
    • Had a flat head and stable crest
    • Nasal crest could have been used for species recognition or social rating, and will have had inflatable air sacs
    • Different dinosaurs that lived across the identical time and place embody Alamosaurus, Parasaurolophus, Pentaceratops, Nodocephalosaurus, Saurornitholestes

    Enjoyable Reality: Nothronychus graffami is essentially the most full therizinosaurid, together with its large claws.