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Episode 307: Stan the T. rex offered for $31.8 million


    Episode 307 is all about Sinocalliopteryx, a dinosaur that will have specialised at searching birds.

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    On this episode, we talk about:


    • New oviraptorosaur from Mongolia named Oksoko solely had two fingers on every hand supply
    • The primary ever ankylosaur, Scelidosaurus, lastly bought an entire description over 150 years after it was excavated supply
    • A Centrosaurus has the “first confirmed case of malignant bone most cancers in a dinosaur” supply
    • Stan the T. rex went to public sale and offered for $31.8 million to an nameless bidder supply
    • Dinosaur eggshells from 68 million years in the past had been lately present in Huesca Province, Spain supply
    • The Phil Currie Dinosaur Museum has a free digital speaker sequence each different Saturday about dinosaurs and paleontology supply
    • In Australia, Tasmania Zoo has lately reopened and has a brand new T. rex mannequin supply
    • The Korea Minting, Safety Printing & ID Card Working Corp made a brand new commemorative medal of Koreanosaurus supply
    • If you happen to want a Halloween costume, listed below are 15 DIY dinosaur costume concepts supply
    • Common Orlando is updating their “Jurassic Coaster” to “VelociCoaster” by including many dinosaur eggs and Velociraptor supply
    • The Jurassic World: Dominion launch date has been delayed for a yr to June 10, 2022 supply

    The dinosaur of the day: Sinocalliopteryx

    • Compsognathid theropod that lived within the Cretaceous in what’s now China (Yixian Formation)
    • Bipedal and carnivorous
    • Sort specimen was about 7.78 ft (2.37 m) lengthy
    • Estimated to weigh 44lb (20 kg)
    • Had an elongated head and a pointed snout
    • Had lengthy palms in comparison with its arms (palms had been so long as the ulna and higher arm)
    • Arms and hindlimbs had been longer in comparison with different compsognathids
    • Additionally had comparatively lengthy ft
    • Had protofeathers (hairlike constructions that lined its pores and skin)
    • Had protofeathers on the higher a part of its foot, which confirmed foot feathers or one thing like them occurred in additional basal dinosaurs than beforehand thought (like Microraptor, which lived later than Sinocalliopteryx)
    • Protofeathers helped with insulation
    • Sort species is Sinocalliopteryx gigas
    • Genus title means “Chinese language lovely feather”
    • Species title means “large” and refers to it being a big compsognathid
    • Described and named in 2007 by Ji Shu-an and others
    • Holotype is a virtually full grownup specimen with a cranium
    • A second specimen was discovered that was even bigger the holotype (cranium was about 10% longer)
    • Just like Huaxiagnathus, however greater
    • Its massive dimension could present compsognathids as a gaggle getting bigger
    • One of many causes Sinocalliopteryx could also be so massive is as a result of it’s one of many few compsognathid species in all probability represented by grownup specimens
    • Holotype had intestine contents: a partial dromaeosaurid leg within the stomach cavity (full decrease leg and foot, with toes and claws articulated)
    • Leg was present in between the ribs, so very doubtless Sinocalliopteryx ate the leg
    • Additionally discovered feathers regarded as from a chicken and had been with the leg within the intestine contents
    • 4 irregular formed stones had been discovered within the holotype’s stomach as effectively, and initially regarded as gastroliths to assist assist in digestion. However no gastroliths had been discovered within the second specimen and in 2012 thought that the stones within the holotype had been swallowed by chance
    • In 2007, Ji and others mentioned this will likely imply it preyed on a smaller, bird-like dinosaur, and Sinocalliopteryx could have been agile and energetic and fierce
    • In 2012 the dromaeosaurid present in Sinocalliopteryx was regarded as from a Sinornithosaurus that was about 3.9 ft (1.2 m) lengthy. Additionally discovered feathers above the dromaeosaurid leg, and different prey animal stays
    • Second specimen additionally had intestine contents, together with undigested bones from two Confuciusornis specimens (primitive avialian), and a scapula from an ornithischian, resembling Yueosaurus or Psittacosaurus. The ornithischian scapula had extra corrosion which exhibits it had been partially digested, so could imply the birds had been eaten extra lately and rapidly collectively, which can imply Sinocalliopteryx had a excessive metabolism and wanted a lot of meals
    • Intestine contents within the second specimen had been present in a C-shape, which would be the form of the digestive tract
    • Having three undigested dinosaurs in its abdomen (of the second specimen) suggests it ate loads of meals and was an energetic hunter
    • Most likely couldn’t fly or climb timber, however could have been stealthy when attacking
    • Could have ambushed prey, like cats resembling servals
    • Being an early chicken, Confuciusornis in all probability might solely fly for brief intervals and would have been sluggish to take off
    • Bones of Confuciusornis don’t take lengthy to digest, and the bones in Sinocalliopteryx’ intestine weren’t broken by any abdomen acid
    • Based mostly on how rapidly fashionable alligators digest their meals, scientists assume the ornithischian bones had been within the intestine of Sinocalliopteryx for 13 days (based mostly on the corrosion of the bones), and that birds can be dissolved within the gastric tract in lower than 12 hours
    • Whether or not it really was an energetic stealth hunter is taken into account speculative/not all scientists agree (doable it might have scavenged its intestine contents)
    • If the Sinornithosaurus within the holotype specimen was hunted and never scavenged, then Sinocalliopteryx would have been capable of go for prey greater than a 3rd its dimension
    • Based mostly on the 2 Confuciusornis specimens discovered within the second Sinocalliopteryx specimen and the chicken feathers discovered within the holotype, could imply Sinocalliopteryx specialised in bird-like prey
    • Not all of the Confuciusornis bones had been within the intestine contents (lacking the cranium, ribs, vertebrae, and extra), so it’s not clear if these components weren’t eaten, in the event that they had been digested extra rapidly, in the event that they had been eaten however then preserved and obscured within the preservation, or in the event that they had been preserved in one other block of fossils not but discovered
    • Lived in a heat, moist forest, in an space with a lot of volcanic exercise
    • Lived amongst birds and crocodiles, along with many dinosaurs together with tyrannosauroids Yutyrannus and Dilong, Therizinosaurus Beipiaosaurus, troodontid Mei, and dromaeosaurid Tianyuraptor

    Enjoyable Truth: Grownup ankylosaurs are normally introduced as being solitary creatures. However some could have lived in teams, particularly when younger.


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