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Episode 309: Have been Triceratops’ horns weapons or ornaments?


    Episode 309 is all about Pararhabdodon, a hadrosaurid from Spain that’s an in depth relative of Tsintaosaurus.

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    On this episode, we talk about:


    • The Dinosaur Systematics Range & Ecology session of SVP coated a brand new African titanosaur, paleopathologies, pores and skin impressions, and rather more supply
    • A 12-year-old within the Badlands of Alberta, Canada, discovered a humerus from a juvenile hadrosaur whereas mountain climbing supply
    • An article describes a technique that would maintain Stan the T. rex obtainable to the general public supply
    • The Kids’s Museum of Indianapolis is engaged on renovations to revamp the world round Dinosphere supply
    • Close to Golden, Colorado, artist Pat Madison created a household of colourful Triceratops sculptures supply
    • The Mace Brown Museum of Pure Historical past in Charleston, SC has new Triceratops and T. rex cranium casts supply
    • The Glasgow dinosaur in Virginia is getting renovated supply
    • The grandson of the artist who created Sinclair’s Dinoland has proposed a restoration of one of many sculptures supply
    • A dinosaur park might open in Wallkill, New York supply

    The dinosaur of the day: Pararhabdodon

    • Hadrosaurid dinosaur that lived within the Cretaceous in what’s now Spain (Tremp Group)
    • In all probability bipedal-quadrupedal
    • Herbivorous
    • Estimated to be about 20 ft (6 m) lengthy as an grownup
    • Had a tall again (tall neural spines), like different hadrosaurids
    • Casanovas-Cladellas, Santafé-Llopis, and Isidro-Llorens named Pararhabdodon isonense in 1993
    • Genus identify means “Close to Rhabdodon”
    • Genus identify means “close to fluted tooth”
    • Initially considered rhabdodontid or primitive iguanodontian, discovered within the Sant Romà d’Abella fossil locality
    • Species identify modified/corrected to isonensis in 1997 by Laurent and others
    • Species identify refers to Isona
    • First excavated in 1985 on the Sant Romà d’Abella (SRA) locality (within the Pyrenees close to Isona, Lleida, Spain)
    • Discovered postcranial stays (vertebrae) and the maxillae
    • Different materials has been referred, however now that materials is considered from different dinosaurs
    • Described as an ornithopod from Catalonia in 1987 by Casanoveas-Cladellas and others (together with cervical vertebra, humerus, fragmentary scapula)
    • Scapula (shoulder bone) had a slim “neck” however may very well be the way in which it was preserved
    • In 1990, extra fossils discovered, and the fabric was checked out once more, after which named in 1993
    • Most materials thought to belong to at least one particular person, which turned the holotype
    • Cervical, humerus, and ulna designated because the paratype
    • In 1994 extra materials discovered (together with maxillae, dorsal vertebrae, sacrum, fragmentary ribs, partial ischium)
    • New materials, together with components of the cranium, let to Casanovas-Cladellas and others reclassifying it as a hadrosaurid
    • Later some debate over whether or not it was a lambeosaurine. As of 2009 considered lambeosaurine and carefully associated to Tsintaosaurus (dinosaur from Wangshi Group of Shandong, China, named in 1958)
    • Now a part of the group Tsintaosaurini (basal lambeosaurines from Eurasia)
    • Poster from 2020 SVP: The osteohistology of Pararhabdodon isonensis sheds gentle into the life historical past and paleoecology of this enigmatic European lambeosaurine dinosaur by Jesus Serrano and others. They discovered a femur, tibia, fibula, & heamal arch (bony arch on the ventral *underside* facet of a tail vertebra of a vertebrate) of Pararhabdodon, which confirms it’s an in depth relative of Tsintaosaurus. Did histology and located it was a sub-adult with a comparatively low progress fee. Additionally discovered it to be comparable in dimension to different European lambeosaurines
    • Numerous referred materials to Pararhabdodon through the years
    • In 1997, Laurent and others referred fossils present in southern France to Pararhabdodon. Nevertheless, different scientists thought the fabric was too fragmentary to find out if it was Pararhabdodon. Additionally discovered one of many fossils, the humerus, was too distinct and belonged to a distinct taxon. Different fossils present in France, described in 2003, have been initially considered Pararhabdodon however in 2013 turned a part of a brand new taxon, Canardia garonnensis
    • A maxilla was referred to Pararhabdodon in 2013, however in 2019 later considered an in depth relative as an alternative
    • A hadrosaur bone mattress, the Basturs Poble bonebed, discovered within the Conques Formation within the late Nineties is considered Pararhabdodon, however the fossils don’t have tsintaosaurin traits and there’s not sufficient materials to check to Pararhabdodon, so now could also be indeterminate lambeosaur fossils. Bonebed included juveniles and adults, with extra juveniles than adults
    • In 2006, Albert Prieto-Márquez and others named a brand new dinosaur, Koutalisaurus kohlerorum (genus identify means “spoon lizard”), based mostly on a dentary discovered close to the unique Pararhabdodon locality. Nevertheless, no enamel preserved although there are 35 tooth positions and it was discovered to be distinctive in comparison with different hadrosaur dentaries, however the fossils are fragmentary so that they stated it was doable if extra fossils are discovered it may very well be synonymized with Pararhabdodon
    • In 2009, Prieto-Márquez and Jonathan Wagner analyzed and in contrast Pararhabdodon, Koutalisaurus, and Tsintaosaurus. Discovered that what was thought to tell apart Koutalisaurus (edentulous slope, missing enamel) was additionally in Tsintaosaurus. Nevertheless, they lived too far other than one another to be considered synonymous. May have stated Koutalisaurus was a nomen dubium, however until one other dinosaur that seemed the identical was discovered within the space, it’s doable Koutalisaurus actually was distinctive for its space. So that they stored it distinct and as a relative of Tsintaosaurus. Nevertheless, additionally they discovered some similar traits in Pararhabdodon and Tsintaosaurus. Since each Pararhabdodon and Koutalisaurus had similarities to Tsintaosaurus, they determined to deal with Pararhabdodon and Koutalisaurus as one
    • In 2013, Prieto-Márquez and others seemed once more on the Koutalisaurus dentary. Since then extra preparation had been down on the fossil, and the examine discovered that the distinctiveness of that dentary was very exaggerated from it was first ready. The identical goes for Tsintaosaurus. So now the dentary will not be distinguishable from a number of lambeosaurines, and never significantly linked to Tsintaosaurus. So it’s now thought-about to be an indeterminate lambeosaurine dentary.

    Enjoyable Reality: T. rex had a really small partial third finger.


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