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Episode 316: Microscopic sauropod parasites


    Episode 316 is all about Xenoceratops, a centrosaurine ceratopsid that lived within the Late Cretaceous in what’s now Alberta, Canada.

    We additionally interview Taylor McCoy, creator of the web site Every part Dinosaurs. He was one in all our first ever company on the present and returns to speak about Tyrannosaurs, the Carnegie museum, a spot in Pennsylvania to go fossil looking, and way more.

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    On this episode, we focus on:


    • A sauropod leg bone was discovered with dozens of worm-like microorganisms fossilized inside supply
    • A brand new mamenchisaurid was present in China supply
    • Derby Kansas is having a “Holly Jolly Jurassic Vacation” occasion supply

    The dinosaur of the day: Xenoceratops

    • Centrosaurine ceratopsid that lived within the Late Cretaceous in what’s now Alberta, Canada (Foremost Formation)
    • Herbivorous
    • In all probability had a parrot-like or turtle-like beak
    • Estimated to be about 20 ft (6 m) lengthy (exhausting to know for positive primarily based on fossils at present discovered) and weighed about 2 tons
    • Had a big frill
    • Had two thick knobs that projected out the center of the frill (on the highest). Subsequent to every knob was a protracted spike that pointed outwards and again
    • No bumps or different ornamentation within the midline of the frill
    • In all probability had nasal and forehead horns like different centrosaurines
    • Probably had massive forehead horns (primarily based on a specimen housed on the Royal Tyrrell that hasn’t been formally described, however probably belongs to Xenoceratops)
    • In all probability had a protracted, low, nasal bone, much like Medusaceratops, primarily based on the fragment discovered
    • Sort and solely species: Xenoceratops foremostensis
    • Fossils present in 1958 by Wann Langston, Jr., who discovered cranium fragments close to Foremost, Alberta, Canada
    • Fossils present in a bone mattress (described as a low range bone mattress)
    • Fragments saved on the Canadian Museum of Nature in Ottawa, after which in 2003 David Evans and Michael Ryan began trying on the fossils (one was a spike, the opposite an unusually massive socket), and analyzed them extra totally in 2009
    • Not many dinosaurs identified from the formation (principally tooth, some hadrosaur skeletons and pachycephalosaurid Colepiocephale)
    • Described by Michael Ryan, Dave Evans, and Kieran Shepherd in 2012
    • In 2012, it was the oldest identified ceratopsid from Canada, and it’s the primary ceratopsian described from the Foremost Formation
    • Genus identify means “alien horned face”
    • Genus identify refers back to the lack of ceratopsians identified from the Foremost Formation
    • Species identify is in honor of the city Foremost, in Alberta, Canada
    • Holotype is a partial parietal (facet of the cranium)
    • Different cranium bones, together with horn and frill materials, have been discovered, from not less than three grownup people. And there’s a fragmentary cranium on the Royal Tyrrell Museum that could be Xenoceratops
    • Specimens included “a whole lot of unidentifiable small fragments”. In response to the authors, identifiable items are normally bigger than 20 mm
    • Regarded as a centrosaurine due to the squamosal (centrosaurines had massive nasal horns and decorative frills)
    • Not many identifiable fossil materials discovered within the Foremost Formation due to the restricted quantity of publicity, however primarily based on microvertebrate localities and identified dinosaurs within the space, the dinosaurs in Foremost Formation have been in all probability much like these within the Oldman and Dinosaur Park formations, however extra basal
    • Michael Ryan stated the invention of Xenoceratops reveals how way more there’s to study concerning the origins of ceratopsids
    • Attainable the scale of the horns have been for recognition and to draw mates (idea). Michael Ryan stated in EarthSky, “Xenoceratops reveals us that even the geologically oldest ceratopsids had huge spikes on their head shields and that their cranial ornamentation would solely turn out to be extra elaborate as new species advanced.”
    • Michael Ryan and Dave Evans are main the Southern Alberta Dinosaur Mission, to study extra about Late Cretaceous dinosaurs and the way they advanced
    • Can see Xenoceratops on a silver coin made by The Royal Canadian Mint (at present not in the stores) however seems cool

    Enjoyable Truth:
    Sure species of turtles can breathe by means of their cloaca.