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Episode 319: Better of 2020


    Episode 319 is all about Dilong, a small feathered tyrannosaur.

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    On this episode, we talk about:


    • The Museum of Discovery and Science in Fort Lauderdale, Florida is holding a free on-line speaker occasion about dinosaurs on Jan 7 supply

    Better of 2020 (266-318):

    Greatest New Sauropod: Bagualia (318)

    HM – Greatest New Sauropod: Bravasaurus (314)

    HM – Greatest New Sauropod: MCF-PVPH-87 (302)

    Greatest New Theropod: Oksoko (307)

    HM – Greatest New Theropod: Paraxenisaurus (300)

    Greatest New Ornithopod: : Ajnabia odysseus (312)

    HM – Greatest New Ornithopod: Changmiania (306)

    Greatest Re-description: Dilophosaurus (296)

    HM – Greatest Re-description: Scelidosaurus (307)

    Gnarliest Pathologies: Worms in sauropod leg (316)

    HM – Gnarliest Pathologies: Osteosarcoma in a Centrosaurus (307) 

    Greatest Early Dinosaur Discovery: Dinosauromorph Kongonaphon (294)

    Greatest Intestine Contents: Borealopelta (295)

    Greatest Dinosaur Nest: Protoceratops (& Mussaurus) (292)

    Greatest Biomechanics Research: Spinosaurus tail (284 & interview in 300)

    Greatest Paleoart: Zuul cake (278 & interview in 281) 

    Greatest Dinosaur Artwork: Quarry rocks in England (282)

    Greatest Video (Brief): Avatar Airbender dinosaur video (312)

    Greatest Surprising Place to Discover Dinosaurs: SpaceX astronauts introduced a dinosaur to area (289)

    Greatest Dinosaur Thought: Turtles are murderers (308) 

    Greatest Dinosaur Impression: Evan Johnson-Ransom’s T. rex impression (293)

    Greatest Dinosaur Sound: Penguins strolling across the Discipline Museum (294)

    Greatest/Worst Dinosaur Public sale (ever): Stan the T. rex (305 & 307)

    Greatest Courtroom Case: Montana ruling that the Dueling Dinosaurs and different dinosaur fossils should not minerals (287, 291 & 313)

    Greatest Augmented Actuality: Nationwide Geographic Re-imagining Dinosaurs on Instagram. Seek for filter “natgeo” to search out them (314)

    Greatest Dinosaur Sport: Animal Crossing (297)

    HM – Greatest Dino Sport: Path of Titans

    The dinosaur of the day: Dilong

    • Basal tyrannosauroid that lived within the Cretaceous in what’s now Liaoning province in China (Yixian Formation)
    • Holotype is sort of full, semi-articulated skeleton, and features a practically full cranium
    • Kind and solely species is Dilong paradoxus
    • Genus identify means emperor dragon (??)
    • Genus identify refers back to the relationship of Dilong to T. rex, the king tyrannosaurid
    • Species identify means “towards acquired knowledge” or “towards accepted knowledge”, and in response to the unique description, refers “to the shocking characters of this animal” (protofeathers on a tyrannosauroid)
    • Described in 2004 by Xu Xing and others
    • Holotype was about 5.2 ft (1.6 m lengthy) however could also be a juvenile
    • Estimated to be greater than 6.6 ft (2 m) lengthy as an grownup
    • Had an extended cranium and slender neck
    • Had a Y-shaped cranium crest, with two ridges alongside its snout
    • Had comparatively lengthy arms and three fingers on every hand
    • Had giant jaw with tightly packed entrance enamel
    • Had quick legs, so in all probability not a quick runner
    • In all probability energetic
    • In all probability went after lizards, mammals, and birds
    • Comparable trying to Eotyrannus, which lived within the Cretaceous in what’s now the Isle of Wight, UK
    • Intently associated to Yutyrannus
    • Lined in protofeathers, which have been present in fossilized pores and skin impressions
    • 4 specimens discovered, however just one has protofeather impressions
    • Protofeathers discovered across the tail and the again of the top
    • Protofeathers have been as much as 0.4 in (3 cm) lengthy, and have been easy and filamentous
    • In all probability coated in a downy coat
    • Probably used for insulation, not for flight
    • Tyrannosauroid, and lived a lot sooner than T. rex
    • First direct proof that tyrannosauroids had protofeathers
    • Feathers on Dilong could imply that T. rex and different later tyrannosaurs had feathers
    • Had some superior cranium options like later tyrannosaurs, together with fused nasal bones and a rounded snout with entrance enamel which might be D-shaped in cross part, which might give it a “cookie cutter” chunk
    • Had a small cranium in comparison with later tyrannosaurs
    • Pelvis just isn’t as strong as different tyrannosauroids
    • Cranium is much less strong than different tyrannosauroids, however might be as a result of it’s smaller
    • In different methods, Dilong seemed like juveniles of later, greater tyrannosaurs
    • Dilong reveals tyrannosaurs had some distinctions earlier than they turned giant like T. rex
    • Grownup tyrannosaurs in Alberta, Canada and Mongolia have pores and skin impressions that present pebbly scales. Xu Xing and others steered tyrannosauroids could have had completely different pores and skin coverings on completely different components of their our bodies (scales and feathers). Additionally steered juveniles could have had feathers and adults had scales as a result of they acquired giant sufficient they didn’t want insulation to maintain heat
    • Scans of the braincase discovered Dilong had an S-shaped mind with skinny meninges (three membranes that line the cranium and vertebral canal and enclose the mind and spinal wire). T. rex had a extra linear mind with thicker meninges
    • Based mostly on the scans, discovered Dilong was in all probability agile and had good stability, however didn’t have good a way of odor as T. rex
    • Lived in an space with early flowering crops, rivers, and streams, with close by volcanoes
    • Dinosaurs that lived across the identical time and place included Yutyrannus, Beipiaosaurus, Sinornithosaurus, Psittacosaurus, Tianyuraptor, and Sinocalliopteryx

    Enjoyable Truth:
    Dilong is the identify of a dinosaur and it’s additionally a reputation used to imply “earthworm” in conventional Chinese language medication and Geosaurus (a marine crocodyliform).