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Episode 338: Yale Peabody Museum growth and a brand new ceratopsian


    Episode 338 is all about Cetiosaurus, the primary sauropod to be described, though it was initially regarded as a whale or giant crocodile.

    We additionally interview Mariana Di Giacomo, paleontologist and Pure Historical past Conservator on the Yale Peabody Museum the place she is overseeing the huge growth of the museum. You possibly can observe right here work on Instagram @marudigi, twitter @marianadgiacomo, or on

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    On this episode, we talk about:


    • The oldest centrosaurine ceratopsian, Menefeeceratops, was described from northwestern New Mexico supply
    • In Lufeng, Yunnan Province in China, researchers just lately discovered the skeleton of a 3 yr outdated sauropodomorph dinosaur supply
    • Headless Henry the Triceratops is being 3D printed for a show deliberate for June on the Missouri Institute of Pure Science supply
    • There’s a new, 100% digital Museum of the Patagonian Desert of Añelo supply
    • The dinosaur mascot Arky the Acrocanthosaurus on the Witte Museum in San Antonio, TX just lately obtained “vaccinated” supply
    • In Kalamazoo, Western Michigan College has a free dinosaur park on campus supply
    • Fairchild Tropical Botanic Backyard in Coral Gables, Florida has a brand new exhibit, Jurassic Backyard: A Prehistoric Journey supply
    • In Champlin, Minnesota there’s a Sinclair gasoline station recognized for its Dino the Dinosaur that has over 100 totally different costumes supply
    • Ok-pop group NCT Dream and the individuals who made the children tune Child Shark made a dinosaur tune referred to as Dinosaurs A to Z supply
    • The present Rugrats is getting a reboot and the trailer contains a T. rex chasing them Jurassic Park fashion supply

    The dinosaur of the day: Cetiosaurus

    • Sauropod that lived within the Center Jurassic in what’s now Europe (England, France, Switzerland, Morocco, although a few of these specimens have been reassigned to totally different genera)
    • Not the identical as Cetiosauriscus, one other sauropod that lived within the Center Jurassic in what’s now England
    • Appear like different sauropods. Quadrupedal, with a protracted neck and small head
    • Cetiosaurus oxoniensis (the sort species as of 2014) is estimated to be 52 ft (16 m) lengthy and weigh 11 tonnes
    • Had a shorter tail and neck than most sauropods
    • Tail had at the least 40 caudal vertebrae
    • Had comparatively lengthy forelimbs
    • Forelimb was about the identical size because the hindlimb
    • Dorsal vertebrae (again) have been heavy, not hole like different sauropods resembling Brachiosaurus
    • Herbivorous
    • Primarily based on its neck size and limb proportions, most likely was a generalist feeder, consuming vegetation at low and medium-high ranges
    • Lived in an space with floodplains and open woodland
    • Wastebasket taxon, with 18 species named. Just one thought of to be a legitimate Cetiosaurus as we speak: Cetiosaurus oxoniensis
    • Cetiosaurus oxoniensis turned the sort species in 2014, and is predicated on a number of specimens (contains most bones, however not a lot of the cranium, presumably a braincase)
    • Genus identify means “whale lizard”
    • Described in 1841 by Richard Owen, who initially thought it was a big marine animal (whale or crocodile); named simply earlier than he coined the time period Dinosauria
    • Species identify “Oxoniensis” refers to Oxford
    • John Kingdon reported the primary fossils, present in Chipping Norton, England, in a letter learn in 1825 to the Geological Society, then Owen named the animal
    • Cetiosaurus first described based mostly on caudal vertebrae, limb components, and a partial shoulder girdle
    • Largely knew again then that it was an enormous. Richard Owen mentioned its bones have been a lot greater than an elephant’s or Megalosaurus, and solely Iguanodon and whales have been related in measurement
    • 1842 within the Proceedings of the Geological Society of London: “As there isn’t a recognized extinct saurian which may so practically compete in measurement with the Cetiosaurus because the Iguanodon, it’s lucky, Prof. Owen observes, that the distinguishing characters are so properly marked and simply recognizable”
    • Richard Owen thought the limb bones have been like crocodiles and the vertebrae like whales
    • Richard Owen additionally thought it was carnivorous
    • Mark Witton has a enjoyable whale like model of Cetiosaurus (lengthy tail, huge center, sturdy jaws), based mostly on Richard Owen’s description
    • Later, Owen categorized Cetiosaurus as a crocodilian
    • Owen additionally named two further species in 1842: Cetiosaurus hypoolithicus and Cetiosaurus epioolithicus, based mostly on fossils present in Yorkshire
    • Then that very same yr he named 4 extra species: Cetiosaurus brevis “the brief one”, Cetiosaurus brachyurus “the short-tailed”, Cetiosaurus medius “the medium-sized”, and Cetiosaurus longus “the lengthy one”
    • When naming the 4 new ones, he used the fossils from Cetiosaurus hypoolithicus and Cetiosaurus epioolithicus (so stopped utilizing these two identify)
    • In 1849, discovered that a few of these fossils have been from Iguanodontidae
    • So Alexander Melville in 1849 named the fossils that have been from sauropods (from Cetiosaurus brevis) as Cetiosaurus conybeari, however that simply made conybeari a junior synonym of brevis
    • Owen thought Cetiosaurus was a crocodile as late as 1859
    • Proper femur of Cetiosaurus oxoniensis present in 1868 by employees, and Professor John Phillips excavated from 1869 to 1870 and located three skeletons
    • Thomas Huxley mentioned Cetiosaurus was a dinosaur in 1869
    • Phillips named two species in 1871: Cetiosaurus oxoniensis and Cetiosaurus glyptonensis
    • In 1871, John Phillips recommended Cetiosaurus was an herbivorous dinosaur, in a monograph
    • In 1875 Richard Owen mentioned Cetiosaurus was a big, aquatic dinosaur
    • In 1968, a brand new Cetiosaurus oxoniensis specimen was discovered, referred to as the “Rutland Dinosaur”
    • Discovered by somebody driving an excavation car, discovered on the base of the Rutland Formation in England
    • The Rutland Dinosaur is essentially the most full sauropod discovered within the UK
    • About 40% full, and contains a lot of the cervical bones, a lot of the dorsal vertebrae, a part of the sacrum and anterior caudals, chevrons, ilium, proper femur, and rib and limb fragments
    • Most full sauropod present in England
    • Rutland Dinosaur is about 49 ft (15 m) lengthy, and since 1985 has been on show within the Leicester Museum & Artwork Gallery
    • Wastebasket taxon. 13 species of Cetiosaurus have been named on fossils present in England, three from France, one from Morocco, one from Switzerland
    • Richard Owen initially named Cetiosaurus with none species identify
    • Cetiosaurus medius was historically thought of to be the sort species of Cetiosaurus. Richard Owen mentioned so in an 1842 article
    • Richard Lydekker assigned Cetiosaurus oxoniensis as the sort species in 1888, however by fashionable guidelines of the ICZN the unique writer (Richard Owen) is the one who ought to choose the sort species
    • In 2003 and 2009, Paul Upchurch and John Martin regarded by means of all of the species of Cetiosaurus and located most of them to be invalid
    • A number of species based mostly on fragmentary materials
    • Discovered a number of the species to be legitimate dinosaurs, however several types of dinosaurs
    • 1905, On Elements of the Skeleton Cetiosaurus leedsi paper: New specimen discovered close to Petersborough. “This specimen is so properly preserved that, since its acquisition by the British Museum, it has been attainable to mount the assorted bones on ironwork of their pure place.”
    • A couple of chain of 10 small vertebrae: “A sequence of such vertebrae on the finish of so huge an animal as Cetiosaurus will need to have been particularly liable to accident”
    • Nevertheless, in 2003 Paul Upchurch and John Martin discovered that there have been no autapomorphic options of the leedsi species, and mentioned Cetiosaurus leedsi was a nomen dubium
    • Upchurch and Martin proposed to the ICZN to vary the sort species from Cetiosaurus medius (they discovered medius to be invalid, resulting from fossils being not distinct sufficient) to Cetiosaurus oxoniensis
    • Upchurch and Martin discovered 5 autapomorphies of Cetiosaurus oxoniensis, together with having “pyramid” formed neural spines within the dorsal vertebrae
    • The ICZN accepted the proposal in 2014
    • Upchurch and Martin proposed the Rutland Dinosaur to be the lectotype
    • Scientists have recommended Cetiosaurus to be carefully associated to neosauropods, so Cetiosaurus could assist present the origins of neosauropods
    • Can see Cetiosaurus statue at Edaville Household Theme Park in Massachusetts
    • Cetiosaurus fossils within the collections at The Museum of Gloucester

    Enjoyable Truth:
    Non-avian dinosaurs roamed Earth for nearly one full galactic yr (a full revolution of our photo voltaic system across the heart of the galaxy).


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