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Episode 343: Dinosaur fossils destroyed in WWII


    Episode 343 is all about Zhuchengtyrannus, a tyrannosaurid that was between Tarbosaurus bataar and Tyrannosaurus rex in dimension.

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    On this episode, we focus on:


    • 3 New Talarurus skulls have been described from Mongolia supply
    • A brand new sauropod from Spain is likely to be one of many largest ever from Europe supply
    • You’ll be able to see Pops the ceratopsian being ready within the fossil lab on the Denver Museum of Nature and Science supply
    • Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin and 24 different museums and universities in Germany are digitizing their collections supply
    • The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology printed (one other) moratorium suggestion for Burmese amber analysis supply
    • Italy’s customs authorities shared a video of discovering a smuggled fossilized sauropod egg supply
    • The Southeast Library in Washington, D.C. is internet hosting a dinosaur-roaring contest supply
    • Lanarkshire, Scotland has a scavenger hunt of 20 prehistoric animals from June 25 till August 29 supply
    • on June 25, Herb the Triceratops will probably be unveiled on the Nice Plains Dinosaur Museum and Discipline Station in Malta, MT supply
    • A dinosaur-filled Van Halen dinosaur video was found from close to Milan, Italy supply
    • IMAX showings of F9 have a 5 minute prolonged preview of Jurassic World: Dominion supply
    • Jurassic World Evolution 2 has been introduced, a sequel to the favored park builder from 2018 supply

    The dinosaur of the day: Zhuchengtyrannus

    • Tyrannosaurid theropod that lived within the Late Cretaceous in what’s now Shandong Province, China (Xingezhuang Formation)
    • Appeared much like Tyrannosaurus, and had highly effective jaws, and small arms with two-fingers on its arms
    • Massive and carnivorous
    • Estimated to weigh as much as 6 brief tons
    • Sort and solely species is Zhuchengtyrannus magnus
    • Described and named in 2011 by David Hone and others
    • Genus identify means “Zhucheng tyrant”
    • Genus identify refers back to the sort locality (Zhucheng Metropolis)
    • Species identify means “nice” in Latin (due to it being so giant)
    • Dave Hone wrote on his weblog he’s not keen on “place-name-saurus” sort names, and he wrote: “a few of us are born with unhealthy names for dinosaurs, some obtain unhealthy dinosaur names, and (on this case) some have unhealthy names thrust upon them!”)
    • Fossils present in 2009, whereas a building crew was digging foundations for a museum
    • Holotype is ZCDM V0031, and features a almost full proper maxilla (higher jaw) and left dentary (the decrease jaw). Each have enamel
    • Now housed at Zhucheng Dinosaur Museum
    • Forged on the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology
    • Maxilla was later broken throughout dealing with, however the forged was made and it was photographed earlier than the accident
    • No damaged bones or indicators of pathologies
    • Most likely an grownup, or close to grownup, primarily based on its dimension and traits seen solely in grownup tyrannosaurs, comparable to heavy sculpting on the maxilla
    • Maxilla was 25 in (64 cm) lengthy, and dentary was about 31 in (78 cm) lengthy
    • Two grownup T. rex specimens have maxilla are 1 and a pair of cm longer, and Sue the T. rex has a 79 cm lengthy maxilla
    • Tarbosaurus specimens vary from 19 in (49 cm) (most likely a juvenile) to 29ish in (73 cm) lengthy, with a number of within the low 20s in inches (60s in centimeters)
    • Onerous to know actual dimension of Zhuchengtyrannus
    • Dentary of the holotype is a bit smaller than most T. rex specimens, and a bit larger than most Tarbosaurus specimens
    • Primarily based on maxilla, holotype is about the identical dimension as or in between Tyrannosaurus and Tarbosaurus
    • So Zhuchengtyrannus estimated it to be between 33–39 ft (10–12 m) lengthy
    • Had distinctive options in its cranium
    • Delicate options in how the fenestrae, fossa, and different elements of the cranium are organized. Close to the entrance of the fenestra on the maxilla there’s a rounded notch, and there’s a horizontal shelf on the lateral floor of the bottom of the ascending strategy of the maxilla (the half going up from the higher jaw)
    • Hone additionally stated there are most likely plenty of Zhuchengtyrannus fossils collected, however they have been remoted and to date, it’s too exhausting to tell apart it from the opposite tyrannosaur (thought be totally different due to the enamel), so for now may solely level to the 2 cranium items discovered collectively
    • A second dentary and a second maxilla discovered on the identical website, Zangjiazhuang quarry (totally different from Zhuchengtyrannus, which suggests there’s most likely at the very least one different tyrannosaurid from the world, although not but named)
    • Tooth have serrations that go all the way in which to the bottom of the tooth crown
    • Dave Hone wrote on his weblog across the time of publication, “Whereas 2010 was celebrated because the 12 months of ceratopsians for a lot of, it shouldn’t be neglected the massive variety of tyrannosaurs which have cropped up within the final 12 months or so”
    • Second tyrannosaurine from China, and doubtless overlapped with Tarbosaurus (no direct proof however fossils discovered close to one another, in time and house)
    • Phylogenetic evaluation in 2013 discovered Zhuchengtyrannus to be the sister taxon of Tarbosaurus (each tyrannosaurines), and advised Zhuchengtyrannus and different recognized tyrannosaurids in Asia have been a part of an evolutionary radiation (fast improve in a clade’s range) that got here from the identical North American stem that led to Tyrannosaurus
    • Appears to be a development of a number of species of enormous, carnivorous dinosaurs dwelling on the identical time and place. Most likely stuffed totally different ecological niches
    • Most likely was a predator and scavenger
    • Having so many giant carnivores round one another might have been extra of the norm (like Spinosaurus and the Kem Kem Beds), so it’s uncommon that doesn’t appear to be the case for T. rex
    • Fossils present in what was once a floodplain (dinosaurs most likely washed collectively throughout floods after which fossilized)
    • Present in one of many highest concentrations of dinosaur fossils on this planet
    • Additionally from the identical time and place: Sinoceratops, hadrosaurids (most likely Shantungosaurus) and ankylosaurs

    Enjoyable Reality:
    Spinosaurus wasn’t the one dinosaur fossil destroyed throughout World Warfare II, there have been at the very least 5 others.


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