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Episode 355: A brand new apex predator from Uzbekistan


    Episode 355 is all about Arrhinoceratops, a ceratopsian which appears to be like lots like a miniature Torosaurus (or Triceratops).

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    On this episode, we focus on:


    • A brand new abelisaurid, Kurupi itaata, was named from Brazil—the primary theropod named from Sao Paulo state supply
    • An allosauroid from Uzbekistan, Ulughbegsaurus, was the apex predator over dromaeosaurids and the tyrannosaur Timurlengia supply
    • Three kinds of dinosaur footprints have been lately discovered within the Thar desert of Rajasthan, India supply
    • Dinny the dinosaur, the Brontosaurus statue on the Calgary Zoo, has been restored supply
    • Two males in Massachusetts have been arrested after being caught allegedly attempting to steal dinosaur footprints supply
    • One other enjoyable checklist of dinosaur websites features a sculpture backyard in San Diego, CA supply
    • Moon Lady and Satan Dinosaur is coming again as an animated collection on Disney in February 2022 supply

    The dinosaur of the day: Arrhinoceratops

    • Chasmosaurine ceratopsian that lived within the Late Cretaceous in what’s now Alberta, Canada (Horseshoe Canyon Formation)
    • Most likely regarded lots like Triceratops, however a distinct frill, and smaller
    • Primarily based on the cranium, estimated to be about 15 ft (4.5 m) lengthy and weigh 2,900 lb (1.3 tonnes)
    • Had a broad, sq. neck frill with two fenestrae (openings)
    • Had deep grooves alongside the neck frill
    • Sides of the frill had about 9 ossifications
    • Left squamosal on the frill facet has a gap from a pathology, possibly from a wound
    • Some scalloping across the frill
    • Had lengthy forehead horns and a brief, blunt nostril horn
    • Horns flip outward
    • Snout was brief and excessive
    • Had dental batteries
    • Most likely ate ferns, cycads, and conifers
    • Described in 1925 by William Parks
    • Holotype is {a partially} crushed, considerably distorted cranium with out the decrease jaws, discovered alongside the Crimson Deer River on Neill’s Ranch web site throughout a 1923 expedition from the College of Toronto
    • Kind species is Arrhinoceratops brachyops
    • Genus identify means “no nostril horn face”
    • Species identify means “brief confronted”
    • Solely the cranium is understood
    • Parks wrote, “The nasal horn core is seemingly absent, however the nasal bone is sharp above and considerably rugose, suggesting that it could have carried a sexy sheath.” Additionally stated the nasal bone rose abruptly, however had no hint of a horn core and that there was no signal on the floor of the bone that the construction had been misplaced (too easy)
    • Later research of Arrhinoceratops discovered Parks had made some errors in his authentic description
    • In 1933 Richard Swann Lull wrote a revision of Ceratopsia. Lull stated there was extra proof of a nasal horn on Arrhinoceratops than within the sort specimen of Triceratops obtusus (“Hatcher” on the Smithsonian)
    • Lull additionally stated it was unusual Arrhinoceratops was so uncommon when a whole bunch of Triceratops had been discovered
    • Extra fossils in Utah discovered within the Thirties, that have been posthumously named Arrhinoceratops? utahensis in 1946 by Charles Whitney Gilmore
    • Gilmore wasn’t certain it was Arrhinoceratops, as a result of on the time there have been fossils from as much as 11 people of an undescribed ceratopsian, and so they have been all fragmentary so it was exhausting to inform what they need to be assigned to
    • Gilmore had died the yr earlier than the publication, so a colleague in all probability completed it
    • Douglas Lawson reclassified it as Torosaurus utahensis in 1976 (stated it was completely different from Torosaurus latus as a result of Torosaurus latus had a proportionally shorter squamosal bone)
    • In 2011 Helen Tyson stated solely the sort specimen might be thought of for certain to be Arrhinoceratops brachyops
    • Additionally stated Arrhinoceratops did have a nasal core
    • And stated that Torosaurus is the closest relative of Arrhinoceratops
    • In 2014, extra Arrhinoceratops fossils discovered
    • Took two years to excavate, and located infants and adults, so possibly they traveled in herds or households
    • Discovered a bone mattress with 5 specimens
    • Earlier than, solely recognized from two skulls
    • Fossils present in 2010 by Frank Hadfield, who has been described as a dinosaur fanatic. He seen decrease jaws and a horn core
    • Over 3,000 kilos of fossils. Used helicopters to airlift some
    • Ready on the Royal Tyrrell Museum
    • Not clear how the group died, however might be from a flood
    • The discover included cranium bones, components of the arms, and hip bones
    • In 2014 Jordan Mallon and others revealed on new details about Arrhinoceratops
    • Described a second specimen, with a comparatively full cranium, vertebrae, and partial left forelimb
    • Had a triangular nasal horncore
    • In 2015, Jordan Mallon and others revealed on the cranium ontogeny of Arrhinoceratops
    • Described the partial cranium of a juvenile chasmosaurine attributed to Arrhinoceratops, and checked out extra mature specimens to grasp the ontogeny
    • Discovered that as Arrhinoceratops matured, the horncores obtained longer and shifted extra to a ahead inclination, the frill epiossifications grew to become decrease and fused to the underlying frill, and the face obtained longer
    • Additionally the scalloping across the frill margins obtained smaller because it aged
    • In 2013, Canada’s Museum of Nature in Ottawa had a “Dino Idol” contest, the place guests to the museum voted between 5 dinosaurs (whose fossils have been nonetheless in jackets). The winner obtained ready
    • Had 5 choices, all with nicknames: “Headrosaur” (the cranium of a hadrosaur), “Thriller Jaw” (jaw of a carnivore like Gorgosaurus or Daspletosaurus), “Stumpy” (the cranium of a ceratopsid, possibly Arrhinoceratops), “Regal Ed” (partial skeleton of an Edmontosaurus, whose head had already been ready), and “Canadian Membership” (the again half of an ankylosaur
    • “Canadian Membership” received (had been wrapped up for 100 years). All 5 contestants had been collected within the 1910s and Nineteen Twenties by Charles Sternberg and his three sons
    • Lived a couple of million years earlier than Triceratops
    • Different dinosaurs that lived across the identical time and place included Anchiceratops, Albertosaurus, Hypacrosaurus, Saurolophus, Parksosaurus, Ornithomimus, Struthiomimus

    Enjoyable Truth:
    Ecosystems normally have many mesopredators, however only one apex predator. Nonetheless, they generally swap roles.


    This episode is dropped at you by Indiana College Press. Dinosaur Tracks From Brazil: A Misplaced World of Gondwana by Giuseppe Leonardi and Ismar de Souza Carvalho, is out now. The e book is the fruits of 40+ years of fieldwork, together with over 200 drawings, work, and maps. It’s out there now at use promo code save30 for 30% off your copy.

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