Skip to content

Episode 378: A brand new spinosaurid and a number of other new Tethyshadros


    Episode 378 is all about Pinacosaurus, Probably the greatest identified ankylosaurs with dozens of identified specimens together with juveniles.

    Massive due to all our patrons! Your assist means a lot to us and retains us going! Should you’re a dinosaur fanatic, be a part of our rising group on Patreon at

    You’ll be able to take heed to our free podcast, with all our episodes, on Apple Podcasts at:

    On this episode, we focus on:


    • A brand new spinosaurid, Iberospinus, was described after a brand new excavation uncovered further fossils supply
    • A big group of Tethyshadros dinosaurs have been present in Italy supply
    • The Mill Canyon Dinosaur Tracksite in Utah was badly broken just lately supply
    • A person allegedly stole a $25,000 dinosaur claw from the Tucson Gem and Mineral Present supply
    • The Lengthy Island Kids’s Museum in New York has a brand new exhibit referred to as “The Age of Dinosaurs” supply
    • Antarctic Dinosaurs: The Exhibition has moved to the Buffalo Museum of Science in New York supply
    • We bought extra particulars in regards to the characters of Marvel’s Moon Woman and Satan Dinosaur supply
    • A brand new miniseries referred to as Jurassic League, will function Justice League characters as anthropomorphic dinosaurs supply
    • The official Jurassic World Dominion trailer was launched together with some feathered dinosaurs supply

    The dinosaur of the day: Pinacosaurus

    • Ankylosaur that lived within the Late Cretaceous in what’s now Mongolia and China (Bayan Mandahu Formation and ?Djadokhta Formation)
    • Appeared form of like Ankylosaurus, with a physique coated in armor (much less spiky) and a membership tail
    • Estimated to be 16.4 ft (5 m) lengthy and weigh as much as 2 tonnes
    • Medium-sized
    • Not as strong as different ankylosaurs
    • Had a flat physique
    • Had strong legs and arms
    • Had 5 digits on every hand and three digits on every foot
    • Had hoof-shaped claws
    • Adults have skulls which might be longer than they’re large
    • Armor on the higher snout consists of a fused mass
    • Had bone tiles on its head
    • Had nostrils that fashioned a despair and had between three and 5 smaller holes (unclear why)
    • Had cheek horns
    • Had a clean beak
    • Had rows of small enamel
    • Had osteoderms on the neck, again, and tail (juveniles didn’t have osteoderms on the tail)
    • Had two cervical halfrings defending the neck
    • Had lengthy, flat, triangular spikes on the physique and tail
    • Had smaller oval osteoderms in parallel rows on the again
    • Had a comparatively small tail membership
    • Pinacosaurus was the earliest specimen Phil Currie and Victoria Arbour studied in 2011, that had a whole tail membership
    • They in contrast the tails of ankylosaurs, and stated it was most probably that ankylosaur tails stiffened earlier than the knob or membership on the finish of the tail fashioned to maximise its effectiveness as a weapon
    • Kind species is Pinacosaurus grangeri
    • Fossils first present in 1923 by Walter Granger
    • Named in 1933 by Charles W. Gilmore
    • Genus title means “plank lizard”
    • Genus title refers back to the plank scutes that coated the pinnacle
    • Species title is in honor of Granger
    • A second species, Pinacosaurus mephistocephalus, named in 1999 by Pascal Godefroit, based mostly on a specimen present in 1996 in Bayan Mandahu throughout a Belgian-Chinese language expedition
    • Species title refers back to the “devilish” squamosal horns and means “Mephistopheles’s head”
    • Pinacosaurus mephistocephalus fossils embrace a well-preserved cranium, decrease jaws, a whole lot of the postcranial, together with cervical armor and tail membership
    • Second species specimen discovered in the course of the second excavation marketing campaign of the Sino-Belgian Dinosaur Expedition in 1996
    • The left arm, a part of the pelvic girdle, and hindlimb are lacking
    • Wrote that the “skeleton was not deformed by stress after burial and there’s no proof of autopsy transportation”
    • Most likely a subadult
    • Second species is about 10 ft or 3 m lengthy (had a smaller cranium than the holotype)
    • Variations within the nostril area from the kind species
    • “The nasal is by far the biggest bone of the cranium roof, forming greater than half of the size of the cranium”
    • Comparable cranium form to the juvenile Pinacosaurus grangeri specimen
    • Premaxilla not utterly coated by nasal and accent dermal plates, like in Pinacosaurus grangeri
    • In 2010, Gregory Paul prompt Pinacosaurus mephistocephalus was a junior synonym of Pinacosaurus grangeri, however in 2012 Robert Hill stated it was legitimate and Victoria Arbour and Michael Burns confirmed
    • In 2014 Victoria Arbour wrote in regards to the systematics, evolution, and biogeography of ankylosaurs
    • Younger in 1935 referred a 3rd species, Pinacosaurus ninghsiensis based mostly on similarities within the enamel and jaws. Now it’s thought-about to be Pinacosaurus grangeri
    • In 1971 Maryanska stated Pinacosaurus ninghsiensis was a junior synonym of Pinacosaurus grangeri, and different paleontologists have since agreed
    • Maryanska additionally synonymized one other dinosaur, Syrmosaurus viminicaudus, named by Maleev in 1952, with Pinacosaurus grangeri
    • Gilmore first described the fitting ilium and tail vertebra with out naming the dinosaur, then later within the 12 months formally named it Pinacosaurus grangeri
    • Holotype of Pinacosaurus grangeri discovered within the second Central Asiatic Expedition of the American Museum within the Flaming Cliffs
    • Holotype features a crushed cranium, first two neck vertebrae, and osteoderms
    • In Gilmore’s second description, revealed December 1933:
    • Specimen is “so badly crushed and damaged that a lot of its detailed construction is obscured, however in view of its distinctive incidence, it appears worthy of description, though I’m totally conscious of the meagerness of its characterization”
    • Badly crushed cranium and jaws and some scattered dermal bones
    • Cranium coated in scutes
    • Enamel extraordinarily small
    • “Though badly crushed and checked in all instructions, virtually all elements of the cranium and decrease jaws are current”
    • Considered from above, cranium has sub-triangular form
    • “It’s evident that, as in different members of this household, all the prime of the cranium is roofed with ossified dermal scutes which utterly obscure the underlying cranial components”
    • Different specimens, cranium and skeleton of a juvenile, present in 1964 in a Polish-Mongolian Expedition, and in different localities of the Mongolian Gobi Basin by the Soviet-Mongolian Expeditions
    • Robert Hill and others described a brand new juvenile specimen of Pinacosaurus grangeri in 2003, present in Mongolia (Ukhaa Tolgod); consists of a virtually full cranium
    • Pinacosaurus grangeri was the second most typical dinosaur discovered at Bayan Mandahu, after Protoceratops andrewsi
    • Pinacosaurus principally identified from juveniles and sub-adults
    • Greater than 30 skeletons present in 1969 to 1970 as a part of Soviet-Mongolian expeditions
    • One other 30 specimens discovered between 1993 and 1998 throughout Mongolian-Japanese expeditions
    • Canadian expeditions discovered one other 40 specimens between 2001 and 2006
    • Teresa Maryanska described a well-preserved juvenile cranium in 1971 and 1977
    • There’s additionally extra, not but described, fossils discovered
    • Eric Buffetaut referred ankylosaur fossils present in Shandong, China to Pinacosaurus sp. in 1995
    • A juvenile specimen was described in 2015 as having a fancy hyoid bone (tongue bone equipment), which can imply it had a robust tongue, to go along with the small enamel that have been changed comparatively slowly. Some extant salamanders have related tongue bones and prehensile tongues. Attainable Pinacosaurus ate some bugs, or perhaps powerful leaves and pulpy fruits
    • A paper in 2011 analyzed the quarry diagram of juvenile Pinacosaurus present in China, and stated all have been upright with their limbs positioned underneath their our bodies
    • In 2011 Michael Burns and others analyzed juvenile Pinacosaurus grangeri specimens present in China
    • All of them had preserved skulls
    • Discovered Pinacosaurus to be essentially the most basal member of Ankylosaurinae
    • 4 specimens collected by the Canada-China Dinosaur Venture at Bayan Mandahu and have been ready
    • A fifth specimen discovered at an unknown web site at Bayan Mandahu by the Silk Highway Expedition
    • The perfect specimens of the bunch have been on show as a part of a touring exhibit referred to as “The Biggest Present Unearthed”
    • A lot of the died in situ and have been buried both throughout sandstorms or rainstorms
    • Twelve extra juveniles discovered within the Sino-Canadian Dinosaur Venture
    • All had the autopsy insect borings
    • In 2021, Gábor and others studied whether or not ankylosaurs from the Cretaceous lived alone or moved in herds
    • Grownup ankylosaurs typically regarded as solitary as a result of most skeletons discovered as remoted people
    • However some MDAs discovered
    • Greater than 30 juvenile Pinacosaurus skeletons collected between 1995 and 1996 by the Mongolian-Japanese Expedition within the Alag Teeg beds (although attainable a few of them have been found earlier than however left behind within the 1969 Soviet-Mongolian expedition)
    • Attainable Pinacosaurus was gregarious as juveniles (for cover), since MDAs had juveniles of comparable sizes
    • Attainable they got here collectively throughout a drought
    • They have been discovered in several localities which might imply this was “true gregarious conduct”
    • However, nonetheless arduous to know their social construction
    • Lived in an arid to semi-arid atmosphere with massive open areas of low and sparse vegetation (good for a number of people gathering)
    • Lived in a semi-desert
    • Different dinosaurs that lived across the identical time and place included ankylosaur Minotaurasaurus, alvarezsaurs Kol and Shuvuuia, oviraptorosaurs Citipati and Khaan, ornithomimosaurs, troodontids Almas and Byronosaurus, titanosaurs, ceratopsians
    • Different animals that lived across the identical time and place included amphibians, crocodylomorphs, lizards, mammals, pterosaurs, and turtles

    Enjoyable Truth:
    Child penguins have been freezing to loss of life in Antarctica attributable to rising temperatures and elevated rainfall. However grownup penguins have particular diversifications that hold them heat in lots of excessive circumstances.


    This episode is delivered to you by our patrons. Their beneficiant contributions make our podcast attainable! You’ll be able to be a part of our group, assist us hold the present going, and get the present ad-free for $9/month (a win win win). Go to to enroll.