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Episode 411: An enormous discover from Africa and a dinosaur egg stuffed with crystals


    Episode 411: An enormous discover from Africa and a dinosaur egg stuffed with crystals. A bonebed of over two dozen iguanodontians from a brand new species, a brand new ceratopsian, and way more


    • At the very least 27 iguanodontians from the brand new genus, Iyuku, had been found in a South African bonebed supply
    • New chasmosaurine ceratopsid dinosaur Bisticeratops froeseorum was found. supply
    • Scientists named a brand new sort of dinosaur egg (which was discovered stuffed with crystals). supply
    • Scientists discovered a pathology in a titanosaur egg that would inform us extra about dinosaur reproductive conduct. supply
    • A bunch of dinosaur tracks and trackways had been present in Alberta, Canada, that will present dinosaurs being sociable. supply
    • One other Tyrannosaurus rex is happening public sale. supply
    • Scientists discovered new dinosaur tracks in Alaska due to an earthquake. supply
    • The Badlands Dinosaur Museum discovered child dinosaurs this summer time. supply



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    The dinosaur of the day: Oxalaia

    • Spinosaurid that lived within the Late Cretaceous (about 100.5 to 93.9 million years in the past) in what’s now northeastern Brazil (Alcântara Formation)
    • Not many bones discovered, however most likely appeared like different spinosaurs
    • Intently associated to Spinosaurus, and could also be a junior synonym of Spinosaurus
    • Had an elongated jaw
    • In all probability had quick again legs, strong arms, and a protracted tail
    • Unclear if it had a sail on its again, as a result of no fossils discovered (except it seems it’s a junior synonym to Spinosaurus)
    • Cranium estimated to be 4.4 ft (1.35 m) lengthy
    • Spinosaurus cranium has been estimated to be between 5.25 to five.75 ft (1.6 to 2.1 m) lengthy. Study extra in episode 300
    • Estimated to be 39 to 46 ft (12 to 14 m) lengthy, based mostly on evaluating the snout to the snout of MSNM V4047 (a really giant Spinosaurus cf., present in 2005)
    • Estimated to weigh 5 to 7 tons
    • Tooth weren’t serrated
    • In all probability ate fish, however might have additionally eaten dinosaurs and pterosaurs (based mostly on proof from different spinosaurids)
    • Fossils present in 1999 on Cajual Island
    • Discovered two partial cranium bones
    • Described in 2011 by Alexander Kellner and others
    • Sort and solely species is Oxalaia quilombensis
    • Genus identify refers back to the African deity Oxalá. In accordance with the paper describing Oxalaia, “probably the most revered masculine deity within the African pantheon, launched in Brazil throughout slavery”
    • Species identify refers back to the Brazilian quilombo settlements (the place descendants of former Brazilian slaves stay), a few of which had been on Cajual Island
    • Holotype present in situ, and contains the fused premaxillae (entrance of the snout)
    • Additionally referred an incomplete left maxilla (higher jaw)
    • Holotype was a uncommon discover as a result of sturdy tides eroded many fossils on the website the place it was discovered
    • A whole lot of spinosaurid tooth present in the identical space
    • Partial cranium and tooth had distinct options, resembling two alternative tooth in every socket, and a extra rounded tip of the snout
    • Latest spinosaurid tooth paper (episode 409), talked about how spinosaurids had two alternative tooth, so unsure how distinct a characteristic this nonetheless is
    • Had seven premaxillary tooth
    • MSNM V4047 solely had six premaxillary tooth
    • Robert Smyth and others in 2020 discovered Oxalaia didn’t have sufficient distinct options to be its personal taxon, and as an alternative any variations had been attributable to particular person variation and that it was a junior synonym of Spinosaurus (which might imply Spinosaurus had a wider distribution than beforehand thought)
    • Fossils had been on the Nationwide Museum of Rio de Janeiro, however they might have been destroyed within the 2018 hearth
    • Lived in a tropical, forested space, with numerous conifers
    • Space surrounded by an arid panorama
    • Different dinosaurs that lived across the identical time and place embrace carcharodontosaurids, dromaeosaurs, sauropods, theropods
    • Different animals that lived across the identical time and place embrace pterosaurs, crocodylomorphs, turtles, fish
    • Comparable animals and crops discovered within the Kem Kem Beds of Morocco from the identical time interval (Africa and South America was linked as Gondwana, and elements had been nonetheless linked throughout this time interval)
    • Can see Oxalaia within the sport Jurassic World: Primal Ops

    Enjoyable Truth:

    If dinosaurs had NASA, they may have prevented extinction (see Double Asteroid Redirection Take a look at).

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