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Episode 414: An enormous carcharodontosaur and a tiny titanosaur


    Episode 414: An enormous carcharodontosaur and a tiny titanosaur. Plus proof of a giant dinosaur from an island, a brand new juvenile T. rex specimen, connecting dinosaurs to chocolate, and way more


    • New “large theropod materials” could also be a 3rd carcharodontosaurid in Cretaceous Morocco or extra assist for the dinosaur Sauroniops supply
    • There’s a brand new titanosaur, Ibirania, which seemed like different sauropods though smaller—regardless of not being on an island supply
    • A brand new massopodan sauropodomorph Tuebingosaurus maierfritzorum has been named from Germany supply
    • A brand new juvenile T. rex was just lately fund and is on show in Colorado supply
    • A brand new research reveals that many dinosaurs have been endothermic (“heat blooded”), whereas others have been ectothermic (“chilly blooded”) supply
    • Shortly earlier than hatching, a chicken’s pelvis seems to be the identical as a dinosaur’s pelvis supply
    • Not all dinosaurs that lived on islands could have been small supply
    • Scientists recognized the primary file of dinosaur tracks in what’s now Palestine and revealed a pleasant set of standards for figuring out tracks supply
    • There’s a minimum of 38 trackways and greater than 350 dinosaur footprints on the TY tracksite in southern Africa supply



    The dinosaur of the day: Zanabazar

    • Troodontid that lived within the Late Cretaceous in what’s now Mongolia (Nemegt Formation)
    • Appeared much like Troodon
    • Paleoart reveals giant claws, lengthy tail, S-curved neck, and feathered
    • One of many largest troodontids
    • Largest identified Asian troodontid
    • Estimated to develop as much as 7.5 ft (2.3 m) lengthy and weigh 55 lb (25 kg)
    • Cranium was 10.7 in (27.2 cm) lengthy
    • Had a big mind in comparison with its physique dimension
    • Fossils first present in 1964 as a part of the primary joint Mongolian-Soviet Paleontological Expedition
    • Initially named a brand new species, Saurornithoides junior, by Rinchen Barsbold in 1974
    • Sort species of Saurornithoides is Saurornithoides mongoliensis
    • Reclassified in 2009 as Zanabazar junior by Mark Norell and others
    • Zanabazar was the primary non secular head of Tibetan Buddhism in Outer Mongolia (lived between 1635 to 1723)
    • Henry Osborn named Saurornithoides mongoliensis in 1924, primarily based on a cranium and fragments of the physique
    • On the time, Troodon formosus was identified solely from tooth and never acknowledged as a theropod, so Osborn in contrast Saurornithoides with Velociraptor, and advised “it might show to have avian relationships”
    • Zanabazar was referred to Saurornithoides due to similarities (Saurornithoides was the one different well-known troodontid with a cranium), and each being from the Late Cretaceous of Central Asia
    • Extra troodontid specimens had been described within the Eighties to early 2000s, which is why Zanabazar was re-examined
    • Holotype features a practically full cranium and braincase, some tail vertebrae, and proper hindlimb
    • Holotype vertebrae are fully fused, which implies it most likely was an grownup
    • Norell and others did CT scans and located sufficient variations between Saurornithoides junior (Zanabazar) and Saurornithoides mongoliensis. Each have been solely identified from their holotypes
    • Norell and others acknowledged this was solely primarily based on two specimens, however each holotypes are adults
    • Zanabazar is bigger than Saurornithoides
    • Zanabazar cranium is 272 mm (10.7 in) lengthy, and Saurornithoides cranium is 189 mm (7.4 in) lengthy
    • Zanabazar has extra tooth than Saurornithoides (118 in comparison with 108), the braincase seems to be barely completely different, and different particulars
    • A number of similarities with Saurornithoides however might be as a result of the similarities are plesiomorphic (ancestral characters) and shared with different troodontids, together with Troodon formosus
    • Two different troodontids have been described that have been discovered within the Nemegt Formation: Borogovia (identified from a partial hind limb) and Tochisaurus (identified from some foot bones). However, Zanabazar doesn’t have these bones preserved, so can’t evaluate and identified if a few of these dinosaurs are synonymous
    • Different dinosaurs that lived across the similar time and place embody tyrannosaurs, ankylosaurs, alvarezsaurs, dromaeosaurs, hadrosaurs, ornithomimosaurs, pachycephalosaurs, sauropods, therizinosaurs
    • Different animals that lived across the similar time and place embody amphibians, crocodylomorphs, fish, mammals, pterosaurs, turtles

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