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I Know Dino Podcast: Ceratosaurus


    Episode 45 is all about Ceratosaurus, a carnivore with a nasal horn.

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    On this episode, we focus on:

    • The dinosaur of the day: Ceratosaurus, whose title means “horned lizard”
    • Lived within the Late Jurassic
    • Present in North America and Portugal and Tanzania
    • Charles Marsh described the sort species in 1884, and Gilmore redescribed the species in 1920
    • Sort species is Ceratosaurus nasicornis
    • Different species embody C. magnicornis (named in 2000) and C. dentisculcatus (additionally 2000)
    • C. magnicornis has a rounder horn, however is similar to C. nasicornis
    • C. dentisulcatus is bigger (greater than 7 m) with an unknown horn form
    • C. dentisculatus might have been twice as large as C. nasicornis
    • Fossils present in Portugal have been attributed to C. dentisulcatus
    • Paleontologists debate over the validity of each species, saying the variations could also be simply people or variations that include age
    • Sort specimen was 18 ft (5.5 m) lengthy, although might not have been totally grown; max size might have been 20 ft (6.1m) lengthy, based mostly on a specimen discovered within the mid Nineteen Sixties based mostly on proportions of the holotype
    • Sort specimen had two left metatarsals fused collectively, which can imply it had a healed fracture
    • Ceratosaurus was very chicken like
    • 15-20 ft (4.5 to 6m) lengthy and weighed about 0.5 to 1 ton (500 kg to 1 ton)
    • Weighed as much as 2,160 lb (980 kg)
    • Had massive jaws, blade like tooth, a blade like horn on its snout and hornlets over its eyes (like Allosaurus)
    • Had a row of osteoderms on the center of its again
    • Unsure why it had osteoderms on its again (may very well be protection towards bigger predators or towards rivals)
    • Quick, highly effective forelimbs
    • Quick arms with four-fingered arms and sharp claws
    • Had a big cranium in proportion to physique
    • Bipedal, s-shaped neck, massive tail, heavy bones
    • Good eyesight
    • Ceratosaurus‘ nasal horn is an extension of the nasal bones on its snout, a fusion of two growths from separate bones (juveniles have beginnings of horn from two bones not fused, so the fusion might point out reproductive maturity)
    • Marsh thought Ceratosaurus‘ nasal horn was a robust weapon (so did Gilmore), however these days scientists assume the horn was used for fight amongst male ceratosaurs (as an alternative of an offensive and defensive weapon) for breeding rights, although different scientists assume it was used only for show and should have been brightly coloured
    • Lived alongside Allosaurus, Torvosaurus, Apatosaurus, Diplodocus, Stegosaurus and Camarasaurus
    • Smaller than Allosaurus and Torvosaurus, and possibly ate totally different meals from them, totally different area of interest
    • Had longer, versatile physique, with a tail formed like a crocodile’s (in all probability a greater swimmer than Allosaurus)
    • Marsh theorized Ceratosaurus was swimmer, based mostly on its lengthy, skinny tail
    • Robert Bakker instructed Ceratosaurus went after aquatic prey (fish and crocodiles), although might have additionally eaten massive dinosaurs (scavenged); additionally present in his examine that adults and juveniles generally ate collectively
    • Might have hunted in teams, might have competed with Allosaurus for stegosaurs, sauropods, iguanodonts
    • Had lengthy tooth (when mouth was closed, the tooth may lengthen under the decrease jaw)
    • Had a jaw that might slice (as an alternative of crush bone)
    • Much less widespread fossils than Allosaurus, although doesn’t essentially imply it was extra uncommon
    • Ceratosaurus fossils had been uncommon (in a single quarry there are bones belonging to no less than 44 people, however just one belonged to a Ceratosaurus)
    • Ceratosaurus has been in a couple of movies (D.W. Griffith’s Brute Drive from 1914, the primary dwell motion movie that includes dinosaurs), the Ceremony of Spring phase of Fantasia, 1940, The Animal World 1956, the place a Ceratosaurus fights and kills a Stegosaurus, however then one other Ceratosaurus assaults to steal the meal, and each find yourself falling off a cliff
    • Additionally within the remake One Million Years B.C., a Ceratosaurus fights a Triceratops
    • Additionally seen in The Land that Time Forgot, 1975, and the sequel The People who Time Forgot, 1977
    • Additionally in Jurassic Park III, the TV documentary When Dinosaurs Roamed America and in episodes of Jurassic Battle Membership (as a rival to Allosaurus)
    • Can see Ceratosaurus on the Pure Historical past Museum of Utah, the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry and Dinosaur Nationwide Monument
    • Ceratosaurus is said to abelisaur (like Carnotaurus), and beforehand Ceratosaurus and abelisaurs and primitive coelophysoids had been grouped collectively as Ceratosauria (theropods nearer to Ceratosaurus than to Aves), however more moderen proof reveals massive distinctions between later ceratosaurs and earlier types
    • Ceratosaurus is the sort genus of the household Ceratosauridae
    • Ceratosaurids lived within the Jurassic and Cretaceous
    • Marsh named the household Ceratosauridae in 1884
    • Ceratosaurs competed with different, bigger predators
    • Two forms of Ceratosaurus tooth: one with longitudinal ridges and one with easy enamel
    • One other ceratosaur is Genyodectes serus (not a lot identified about this dinosaur although–no cranium discovered, so unclear if it had a nasal horn)
    • Enjoyable Truth: There are 10 forms of dinosaurs which were found in Dinosaur Nationwide Monument: Ceratosaurus, Torvosaurus, Allosaurus, Apatosaurus, Barosaurus, Camarasaurus, Diplodocus, Haplocanthosaurus, Stegosaurus, Uteodon (yewt-o-don), Dryosaurus