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I Know Dino Podcast: Hypsilophodon


    Episode 28 is all about Hypsilophodon, a fast-running dinosaur.

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    On this episode, we focus on:

    • The dinosaur of the day: Hypsilophodon, an ornithopod, whose identify means “Hypsilophus-tooth”
    • Lived within the early Cretaceous, in what’s now England
    • Sort species is Hypsilophodon foxii, named in 1869-70
    • Discovered within the Wessex Formation within the Isle of Wight
    • Virtually 100 specimens have been discovered on the Isle of Wight (over 20 dinosaur species discovered there)
    • 20 Hypsilophodon specimens have been present in one place, the place they died collectively (might have been in quicksand)
    • Reverend William Fox, found the 1868 specimen (with cranium), so the kind species is called after him
    • Small, bipedal, about 5.9 toes (1.8 meters) lengthy, weighed about 45 kilos (20 kg)
    • Agile runner, and had a pointy beak it used to chunk off vegetation
    • Herbivore, and probably an omnivore
    • Plenty of misconceptions: scientists used to assume Hypsilophodon climbed timber and was armored
    • First present in 1849, and two items have been offered (one to naturalist James Scott Bowerbank); on the time, they thought it was the bones of a younger Iguanodon (Mantell described it as an Iguandon in 1849, as did Richard Owen in 1855)
    • Paleontologist Thomas Henry Huxley wrote a extra complete description in 1870 (after finding out the cranium); Huxley was the primary to notice that Ornithischians had pubic bones that pointed backwards, like birds
    • Huxley selected the identify Hypsilophodon as a result of he needed it to be much like Iguanodon’s identify (means iguana-tooth) so he selected named the dinosaur after an “extant herbivorous lizard”
    • Richard Owen nonetheless thought Hypsilophodon was not a special genus, and renamed it in 1874 Iguanodon foxii, however scientists rejected it (John Whitaker Hulke had extra specimens from Fox)
    • In 1874 Hulke described Hypsilophodon as armored, however in 2008 Galton wrote the armor was really from the torso, “an instance of inner intercostal plates related to the rib cage. It consists of skinny mineralized round plates rising from the again finish of the center rib shaft and overlapping the entrance fringe of the following rib”
    • In 1882 Hulke mentioned Hypsilophodon was in all probability quadrupedal, but additionally climbed rocks and timber (due to its greedy hand). In 1912 paleontologist Othenio Abel mentioned it was a aroboreal animal, and in 1916 Gerhard Heilmann mentioned it lived like a contemporary tree kangaroo. However in 1926 Heilmann modified his thoughts and mentioned the primary toe was not opposable as a result of it was “firmly related to the second”. In 1927 Abel denied this description, and in 1936 Swinton mentioned despite the fact that the primary metatarsal was ahead pointing it may need a moveable toe. In 1969 Peter M. Galton analyzed the skeleton, and described Hypsilophon as not with the ability to climb, however as an alternative a bipedal runner.
    • Most Hypsilophodon specimens have been discovered between 1849 and 1921, and are actually within the Pure Historical past Museum in London (about 20)
    • 1967 Peter Malcolm Galton printed his thesis on Hypsilophodon, beginning fashionable analysis on the dinosaur
    • In 1978-79, Galton and James Jensen named one other Hypsilophodon species, Hypsilophodon wielandi, after George Reber Wieland discovered a thigh bone in South Dakota. They thought Hypsilophodon wielandi was proof of a land bridge between North America and Europe, however now the specimen is taken into account an “indeterminate basal ornithopod”
    • Hypsilophodon had primitive options, similar to 5 digits on every hand and 4 digits on every foot (its fifth finger was opposable and will seize meals); had a beak like different ornithischians, but additionally had 5 enamel in its premaxilla (entrance of the higher jaw)–most different herbivores in its time not had these entrance enamel)
    • Had a big eye socket, and skinny, pointy bones excessive half of its eyes to offer it shade (and make it look fierce)
    • Quick, giant cranium, with a triangular snout, and a beak
    • Beak-like mouth means it might have been picky about what to eat
    • Had 28-30 fan-shaped enamel (regularly changed)
    • Might have had cheeks, to assist it chew meals
    • As a result of it was small, at low-growing crops (in all probability favored shoots and roots, like fashionable deer)
    • Might have been semi-quadrapedal when consuming low rising crops
    • Might have eaten seeds (cycads, cone-like seed crops)
    • In all probability moved in giant teams; dubbed the “deer of the Mesozoic”
    • Not a lot identified about its habitat
    • Doable predators: Eotyrannus, Neovenator, Baryonyx
    • Associated species had neatly organized nests (no Hypsilophodon nests have been discovered), so might have cared for eggs earlier than hatching
    • One of many quickest sorts of dinosaur, in all probability
    • Had a physique constructed for working; gentle weight, lengthy legs, stiff tail (for stability); could also be one of the best ornithischian tailored to working
    • When working, stored its backbone horizontally stage to the bottom (lengthy tail would assist counterbalance)
    • Can see a mounted skeleton at Dinosaur Isle, “Britain’s first goal constructed dinosaur museum and customer attraction; primarily based in Sandown on the Isle of Wight”
    • Hypsilophodonts have been small, lengthy, bipedal herbivores (some made burrows for his or her younger, like Oryctodromeous (episode 2)
    • Lived within the center Jurassic to late Cretaceous
    • Fossils have been present in Asia, Australia, Europe, New Zealand, North America, and South America
    • Enjoyable Reality: All dinosaurs laid eggs. About 40 sorts of dinosaur eggs have been found. (there are ~1,000 found up to now, so there are nonetheless numerous unknowns [including ceratopsians])