I Know Dino Podcast: Oryctodromeus (Episode 2)

The I Know Dino podcast goes sturdy. We’ve a number of episodes up already, and are engaged on getting all of them transcribed.

You will discover our free podcast, with each episodes, on iTunes at:


In our second episode, our featured visitor is Dr. Anthony J. Martin, a paleontologist who focuses on ichnology, which in line with his web site, is “the research of recent and historical traces attributable to animal conduct, equivalent to tracks, trails, burrows, and nests.”

Dr. Martin can be the writer of a number of books, together with his most up-to-date one, Dinosaurs With out Bones. You may also discover him on Twitter, @Ichnologist. and I like to recommend studying his submit that dissects the ichnology within the Jurassic Park motion pictures.

On this episode, we talk about:

  • The dinosaur of the day: Oryctodromeus. The identify is Greek for “Burrowing Runner.”
  • Oryctodromeus was the primary identified burrowing dinosaur, and Dr. Martin and his colleagues discovered an grownup and two juveniles in a fossilized chamber, in 2007. That they had died and decayed within the burrow, which regarded just like these made by hyenas and puffins.
  • Having juveniles with the adults suggests Oryctodromeus offered parental look after an prolonged time period.
  • Oryctodromeus lived through the Center Cretaceous, about 95 million years in the past, in southwestern Montana and southwestern Idaho.
  • Oryctodromeus was as much as 6.8 lengthy, and weighed 70 kilos (it was small, however fast)
  • Oryctodromeus didn’t have lengthy legs and arms, like trendy burrowing animals. Nevertheless it did have extra specialised diversifications, equivalent to a versatile tail it might curl up underground. This makes it just like rabbits, aardvarks, and hyenas.
  • Dr. Martin recommends visiting Dinosaur State Park in CT to see dinosaur tracks.
  • Enjoyable Truth: The most important dinosaur eggs have been as large as basketballs. Greater eggs had thicker shells, so if the eggs had been bigger than basketballs, dinosaur infants in all probability wouldn’t have been capable of hatch.

For many who might choose studying, see beneath for the transcript of the episode, together with our interview with Dr. Martin:

Garret: Good day and welcome to IknowDino, a podcast about dinosaur and all issues dinosaur associated. I’m Garret

Sabrina: And I’m Sabrina.

Garret: Right this moment we might be interviewing Dr. Anthony J. Martin, who’s an ichnologist, which implies he research all of non-bone associated traces from dinosaurs which can be coprolite, also called dinosaur fossilized poop, and dinosaur tracks and gastroliths, that are stones that they swallowed, and anything that will get fossilized or preserved that isn’t the dinosaur itself. It provides a deeper understanding of the day-to-day lives of dinosaurs which you could’t get that from their bones and even their skins or feathers or something. It’s actually in some methods much more fascinating than finding out bones as a result of you may see whether or not the dinosaurs raised their younger or whether or not they left them at a younger age, you may inform in the event that they hunted in packs or in the event that they migrated as a herd, you may inform how shortly they moved by how far aside their footprints are spaced, and you may inform how large they have been after they have been born as a result of it consists of issues like their nests.

Sabrina: Becoming a member of us is Dr. Anthony Martin, a paleontologist and professor at Emery school at Atlanta Georgia. He focuses on ichnology, which research issues equivalent to animal tracks, burrows, trails and feces and may confirm dinosaur habits, food regimen, and migration patterns, amongst different issues. He’s identified for locating the primary burrowing dinosaur in addition to discovering the perfect assemblage of polar dinosaur tracks within the Southern hemisphere and he’s additionally the writer of a number of books, and the newest one is known as Dinosaurs With out Bones: Dinosaur Lives Revealed by Their Hint Fossils. So welcome and thanks once more for this interview.

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: Effectively thanks for asking me Sabrina. This can be a pleasure.

Sabrina: So how did you get into this subject, particularly ichnology? What made you ?

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: Ichnology me after I was in graduate college. I first began studying about these hint information, these are traces made by animals and crops and preserved in a fossil file what actually drew me about hint file was realizing that these have been the merchandise […] these hint information will inform you details, burrows, nests, feces these inform you what a selected animal was doing in on a selected day hundreds of thousands of years in the past for me that imaginative draw of hint fossils I simply haven’t gotten over it, it’s one thing that excites me each time […]

Sabrina: I learn that you just studied each trendy and historical traces, do you’ve a desire?

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: Yeah, will depend on which day it’s, the place I’m ,like proper now I’m at Atlanta Georgia space, so essentially I’ve to take a look at trendy traces if I’m going out for a stroll in order that’s going to be unbelievable as I stroll via a metropolis park I can see there are burrows made by […] or there’s a head nest or there’s the drilled gap on a tree left by a woodpecker. There are these raccoon tracks going via the park in the course of the evening that folks didn’t know, no raccoons stay there, these form of traces all draw me in for a contemporary perspective but when I’m out West let’s say simply three weeks in the past I used to be out at Montana watching […] traps and different traces these then are what are going to be my focus though I don’t ignore the fashionable traces I see round there too, okay, so yeah simply will depend on the place I’m, what I’m doing these days.

Sabrina: So I learn in your current e-book you stated ichnology is about storytelling and developing with a number of what if situations. So how will you make sure of those situations and what’s the everyday strategy of developing with them?

Dr. Anthony J. Martin:  A number of the situations as I convey into that story, originally of Dinosaurs With out Bones a few of them are, I’m fairly positive about we’re very positive as an illustration that there have been dinosaurs of […] or made nests a sure manner or made burrows so these form of concepts have been backed up time and again from the proof that we get from dinosaur hint fossils generally we simply have the hint fossils, generally we’ve got their bones related to the hint fossils or we’ve got different fossils that may be interacting just like the dinosaur feces. As an illustration I wrote on the market have been dung beetles, nice thundering herds of dung beetles as I want to say, they have been drawn to the dinosaur dung properly we find out about that due to the analysis that Dr. Karen Chin did on dinosaur feces has proven that there have been traces left behind by dung beetles that match clearly trendy dung beetles, we’re very positive about that, so a number of the situations that I introduced have been somewhat extra imaginative, however in these circumstances I admitted it and stated additionally that in science we predict, generally we get hint fossils that present a sure type of conduct. Effectively it may be one thing else however we can also predict that we should always discover these […] hint fossils and I’ve somewhat want listing that finish of the e-book that type of says right here’s some future situations we may be fulfilling with scientific proof.

Sabrina: What’s on the high of your listing?

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: On the high of my want listing, I feel it was observe manner made by a big predatory dinosaur, one thing like a tyrannosaurus, Spinosaurus, a kind of different actually giant predators. What’s very cool is that that was in direction of the highest of my want listing, I don’t keep in mind precisely which quantity it was, however then it obtained fulfilled final month. There have been 5 or 6 ichnologists who printed a paper simply final month about these enormous dinosaur observe methods in British Colombia that confirmed these few giant predatory in all probability, tyrannosaurus […] have been strolling parallel to at least one one other in order that advised the assorted behaviors of those giant dinosaur might have been looking collectively or simply transferring collectively. That was fairly cool.

Sabrina: So simply going again to the type of the story telling facet…what are your ideas on fiction about dinosaurs? I feel I already talked about paleontologists on the whole attempt to keep away from writing fiction however then your opening scene within the e-book was—simply I actually loved studying it.

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: Yeah that’s proper. I might like to see extra paleontologists write fiction goal level and inform all people, please that is fiction however use their information, use their expertise to have the ability to spin some extra imaginative tales. Now generally it does look like we’re spinning imaginative tales already however we scientists, we attempt to use our proof based mostly reasoning as a part of that or if we’re being speculative we are saying, “Oh right here’s a hypothesis and it’s a prediction,” after which we attempt to simply show it like all good scientists would do. However I might like to see extra individuals doing fiction with dinosaurs that isn’t essentially backed up by proof however impressed by proof. What additionally must be realized if you’re doing that kind of fiction is you begin taking a look at what has been proven by the fossil file, particularly for dinosaurs, and generally they have been far more loopy than we might make up and generally […] particularly once we get new revelations about dinosaurs and the way they behaved, assist each other, assist different animals, assist crops or to their ecosystems on the whole.

Sabrina: Do any examples spring to thoughts?

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: Effectively we’re discovering out now an instance of how, we’re discovering out now that the road we draw between what’s a dinosaur, what’s a fowl, we now know that trendy birds are dinosaurs. I obtained a chapter within the e-book that’s about birds as trendy dinosaurs […] which you could observe a dinosaur at this time by simply going via an area park and watching birds and seeing the traces they make. That line is getting so blurred now that we are actually realizing a few of these small feathered dinosaurs in all probability have been arboreal that they have been going up in timber and that they have been both gliding or flying from tree to tree. That form of blurred line the place what’s fowl what’s a dinosaur it’s now turn out to be complicated even for these of us who research that it’s getting actually complicated and anyone simply ask themselves, properly the place will we draw the road? Effectively I’m probably not positive and a few of what we’ve got seen now could be what we all know are […] they have been behaving in a really bird-like method and I feel sooner or later one of many different chapters, I obtained a chapter that appears at nesting and nesting behaviors of dinosaur, I feel we’re going to seek out extra examples of that the place these […] dinosaurs have been nesting very very similar to birds these form of conduct goes again could also be farther and in additional miniatures of dinosaur than we ever would have suspected.

Sabrina: Yeah, your e-book additionally mentions dinosaur swimming. I didn’t notice, they usually might have accomplished leisure actions?

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: Leisure actions?

Sabrina: Yeah is there any proof of that?

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: Oh yeah, yeah that’s proper I did ask that query–is there any? We’ve seen this in a number of animals at this time, trendy animals, that they often did play and we see play conduct in a number of mammals that’s used as a manner of educating. We additionally see now there’s a studying conduct and educating conduct in some species of birds, so I’ll get into that. By leisure actions do you additionally imply dinosaur intercourse?

Sabrina: Yeah.

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: Yeah I’ll inform you somewhat bit about that too and naturally that wasn’t essentially leisure, that was made procreation, however who is aware of? Yeah I did speculate somewhat about that as a result of we haven’t discovered any particular dinosaur hint fossils having intercourse. We all know that they had intercourse; we all know that they had they usually did for 150 million years after which with trendy birds in fact they proceed that proud conduct, however we don’t actually have a direct hint fossil proof of that both, so I might be curious about seeing is there any proof. I assume I can put it into place and say the courtship conduct if there’s any proof of play courtship conduct, precise coitus, submit coitus, I even make in somewhat joke in there about that and maybe the gender variations one may see with these. These kinds of traces we haven’t actually nailed these down but in order that’s one thing that I took somewhat extra speculative view on these, however gave somewhat abstract and information submit for our future paleontologists. I feel I’ve stated soiled minded paleontologists, which principally all of us is, about how we might discover these fossils sooner or later.

Sabrina: So what if something tells us extra about dinosaurs? Do you assume tracks or feces, tooth marks, nests, burrows, possibly one thing else, or some examples the place we are able to be taught from them?

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: Oh gosh how can I select? So I assume I’m extra of a holistic ichnologist in that, properly for instance after I was simply doing this subject work in Montana I used to be in […] 75 million years previous and minimal a dinosaur hint fossils I might see there simply in a day of strolling round included coprolite, dinosaur coprolites, tooth marks, dinosaur nests, tracks. That was a minimal I might see that simply in a morning I might stroll round that space and see proof via these hint fossils, so it actually will depend on the place you might be, what blocks you might be in, what kind of proof obtained preserved, if I’m in a spot that’s well-known for dinosaur tracks then in fact I’ll deal with people who tells us all form of unbelievable conduct about how they have been transferring. On the chapter I’ve on dinosaur tracks, it’s the longest within the e-book, it’s titled “These ft have been made for strolling, operating, sitting, swimming, urging and looking,” that’s actually the preview within the title as a result of tracks can inform us much more than these. However nests are additionally extraordinarily precious, particularly for telling us about submit mating conduct, citing dinosaur infants, what occurred after, after the eggs hatched. Nurturing conduct in dinosaurs nests have that potential to inform us about dinosaurs, and dinosaur burrows inform us about adaptation towards say predators or simply getting out of the best way of pure disasters […] In fact tooth marks inform us about what dinosaurs ate, who ate who, and the way did they eat them, and what kind of harm was generally left on enamel by crops, what that dinosaurs have been consuming, after which in fact I really like coprolites. Coprolites inform you precisely what a dinosaur was consuming on a given day. Yeah I additionally, so yeah don’t make me select. I simply love all of them.

Sabrina: That is sensible. Are hint fossils on the whole type of arduous to seek out and establish?

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: It relies upon. Tracks I feel are very simple for most individuals to seek out and I feel even an untrained novice, should you exit in a spot that has some well-preserved dinosaur tracks they usually obtained to qualify that, properly preserved dinosaur tracks, they typically will spot them so how about that greater than half of the dinosaur tracks which were found from a fossil file have been by untrained amateurs, individuals who have been out climbing in a distant space they discovered some three-toed or four-toed tracks and there’s something in our primate brains that we go, that we immediately acknowledge that sample as being one thing from an animal at generally it’s type of paradoxical generally you overlook them if they’re too large although.

Sabrina: Oh that’s fascinating.

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: You stroll by them and also you assume that that’s a pothole. Oh what number of potholes have been there in Mississippi? Come on, give it some thought and once more you see the potholes resolved themselves in a sample subject, that’s a diagonal strolling sample–ohh cool. So I feel tracks for most individuals are simple to identify, different ones, different hint fossils not really easy. Coprolites take a number of coaching I feel as a result of lots of people get a false identification. They’ll choose up one thing lumpy that, it appears to be like like dung, it smells like dung. The factor [ 00:15:56:00 inaudible] they’re very excited they convey it to their native museum, they convey it to the paleontologists on the museum they present it to her after which she goes, “I’m sorry that’s not a coprolite.” And that type of reminds you of the XFiles. I wish to consider you already know, properly it’s not about perception it’s about what’s there, it has to have digestive materials in it for one, it simply can’t seem like a coprolite; it has to have proof that it went via the intestine of an animal after which did it belong to a dinosaur that narrows it down too […] after which which dinosaur it might need belonged to. I might imagine the hardest hint fossil of all to establish from a dinosaur, what I haven’t talked about but, is gastroliths. These are the abdomen stones that dinosaur swallow, not all dinosaurs only a few we’re discovering now, swallow these stones to assist them with their digestion. These rocks are so troublesome to tell apart from simply an abnormal rock that didn’t reside in a dinosaur intestine so I’ve an entire chapter on it. It’s titled “Why would a dinosaur eat a rock,” and explores about how troublesome it’s to tell apart what’s a gastrolith and what’s not a gastrolith from rocks which might be in the identical sediments that comprise a dinosaur valve, tracks, or different sorts of dinosaur fossils. That’s a tricky one and people can be probably the most difficult for […] for public to have the ability to establish.

Sabrina: Positive how would you as a paleontologist establish it?

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: Oh boy I might have a tricky time. There’s only some individuals who I feel are actually good at it. You search for a cultured floor that’s one clue, you choose it up and it appears to be like prefer it’s been polished […] do comprise stays of dinosaur from the suitable surroundings like river flood plains […] You may see some little chatter marks on it from the place it impacted with one other rock. Chatter marks must be in a manner that they weren’t made in a surf like from a surf knocking the rocks backwards and forwards additionally they typically occasions are coarse so they didn’t dissolve. Take into consideration a dinosaur swallowing a limestone that might have been the equal of swallowing a […] If they’ve simply dissolved of their abdomen with no proof of gastroliths there so it must be one thing that might be proof against abdomen acids too, so it’d really present some proof of that as properly that there may even be somewhat bit mass that’s really preserved in it. However normally the people who find themselves distinguished this that they had to make use of microscopes or lasers or different sorts of particular gear to have the ability to decide for positive that this got here from a intestine of a dinosaur. Thankfully trendy birds additionally swallow stones, we even have large birds that lived only in the near past known as […] in New Zealand they usually additionally swallowed stones so that they had gastroliths. So we are able to really take a look at […] gastroliths as current examples of avian dinosaurs doing this, additionally take a look at trendy birds that swallow stones and take a look at the traits of these after which we are able to do the comparability so we’ve got these trendy equivalents with our trendy dinosaur that we are able to evaluate of what we might see in a fossil of dinosaurs.

Sabrina: You’ve talked about […] Australia is an effective place to, was a well-known dinosaur tracks website–what are another locations with hint fossils which might be type of well-known?

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: Yeah, […] was within the information once more as a result of the newest research accomplished on it, I discussed a researcher in that chapter, and I’m glad I left the chapter at, ended it type of open ended as a query of [ …] who is aware of, relatively than taking a stand as a result of we are actually discovering that […] wanting on the proof I’ve learn the newest newspaper it does look pretty convincing that this was a dinosaurs swim website relatively than dinosaur observe website they usually obtained their tracks there however they have been in all probability from a dinosaurs that have been going throughout water […] They give the impression of being similar to the tracks then that we see in South-Western Utah, St. George, Utah which has 1000’s. And I’ve seen them; it’s unimaginable, 1000’s of dinosaur tracks which were made by swimming. That they’ve the suitable sample, they’ve the suitable type to them, they usually simply have all of those traits that present these have been dinosaurs that have been in all probability buoyed up by water and their […] have been simply touching their backside as they have been type of I’ll say dog-paddling, dinosaur-paddling alongside.

Sabrina: I used to be additionally fascinated you talked about sauropods might have made trails that reworked the land and waterways of the areas they lived in. Might you elaborate?

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: Yeah I needed to say what was my favourite chapter to write down within the e-book, it was the final chapter it was known as “Dinosaurs and landscapes ,“ and evolutionary traces, and that was one of many factors I introduced up is that sauropods in all probability modified their landscapes and people adjustments then in an irrigative form of manner then affected landscapes that we’ve got at this time. And I even speculated, I don’t assume I fairly speculated, that possibly a few of these river valleys that we’ve got at this time that take again to the time of sauropods could also be these have been affected, the course of these river valleys have been affected by sauropods. Now the fashionable analogies I used, and they’re actually weak analogies I might join as a result of they’re too small, can be elephants and hippos. Hippos, as an illustration, make these trails that go from their water our bodies throughout land and join water our bodies, and since they’re large animals they usually put on down these trails, they find yourself connecting the water our bodies they usually get this actually deep channel types that really can change the programs of the rivers or in any other case change the panorama. Elephants do the identical form of factor however they utterly change landscapes, particularly wetlands, that the elephant trails over time will join all of those wetlands that usually wouldn’t be linked, on a smaller scale flamingo […] and a few of her colleagues that they did in Jap Africa the place they have been taking a look at a flamingo nesting floor the place these hundreds of thousands of flamingos have been making this mound nest. Over time hundreds of thousands of flamingoes making nests in that very same space round these lake shores utterly modified the stream regime of these lake shores. So these are small animals in comparison with dinosaurs, elephants, hippos, flamingos for positive are very small animals, however then there’s that strengthening numbers after which time in fact […] how that had have modified the landscapes in order that proof from Western Australia of dinosaur trails that Tony […] proposed. I feel he’s completely proper that these have been the paths that sauropods over time wore them down really modified the landscapes there at the moment clearly hundreds of thousands of years in the past.

Sabrina: It’s simply loopy to consider.

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: Yeah like I stated that was my favourite chapter to write down as a result of it has, okay you thought stuff was thoughts boggling, wait until you learn this and simply type of piece all of it collectively how these traces are greater than only a single footprint, a gastrolith, a coprolite. No, you take a look at your panorama which may have been affected by a dinosaur.

Sabrina: Yeah, I additionally observed that you just talked about Jurassic Park a couple of occasions within the e-book, and it sounded such as you didn’t care an excessive amount of for the sequels. What’s your feeling on the primary film?

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: Yeah it’s humorous I lastly obtained myself to look at the entire Jurassic Park 2 not too long ago, and it wasn’t really that dangerous as I initially thought as a result of I solely noticed, I by no means noticed the entire thing, at all times caught snips of it on TV or noticed some clips on YouTube, after which I heard from my colleague paleontologist associates they have been like, “Ohh it’s so dangerous in comparison with the unique.” I imply, virtually all people loves the unique; then I watched it and it really wasn’t that dangerous. A cool factor that occurred in it, that I want I had identified about earlier than, was {that a} large sport hunter character, I forgot his identify within the film, he’s really monitoring the tyrannosaurus one time they usually confirmed this tyrannosaurus observe and I used to be like, “Ohh that’s cool.” So at times I make myself rewatch. I’ve seen all of Jurassic Park.

I’m going to make myself rewatch it after which once more take into consideration what kind of traces have been within the film after which I, on my weblog just like the traces of the […] I did a weblog on it final yr in regards to the re-release of Jurassic Park in 3D I went to see it within the theatre to see it in 3D however I took of what traces have been proven on the film, what was based mostly on ichnology, what have been a number of the dinosaur conduct that might be based mostly on ichnology and that was actually enjoyable to do. It was really pretty intensive. It was a protracted submit on the subject and I titled it the “Ichnology of Jurassic Park,” so I completely anticipate to do this with Jurassic World or so-called Jurassic Park 4, which is meant to return out subsequent summer season. So we are going to see I could get pleasure from it only for the ichnology and hate the film. Who is aware of we are going to see.

Sabrina: I’ll look out in your weblog submit.

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: Yeah that’s proper.

Sabrina: So do you’ve a favourite dinosaur?

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: I’m fairly biased about that. It’s Oryctodromeus cubicularis. I’ve described it intimately in chapter 4 within the e-book which is titled, no chapter 5, I’m sorry. It’s dinosaur down underground Oryctodromeus cubicularis. I obtained the cool identify it means you’ve seen […] roots, it means […] and it was an ornithopod dinosaur, small herbivorous ornithopod dinosaur that targets on burrows and it was present in it’s personal burrow with two of its partially grown juveniles. So this was the primary proof of dinosaurs having any conduct. I describe this the burrow with my colleague and buddy David […] and we obtained a colleague […] who found the dinosaur within the subject in South Western Montana as soon as the bones have been extracted from what was initially the den they realized that this dinosaur has had diversifications for digging. Its shoulder girdle was completely tailored for digging, had an additional vertebrae and its hip to brace itself and its snout was additionally type of shovel-like and possibly repeated it additionally in digging. So these three traits of that dinosaur together with it being in a burrow together with the 2 juveniles being in burrow and each of these juveniles being of the identical age this was all very persuasive proof that Oryctodromeus was a burrowing dinosaur, and the primary that we all know of within the paleontology file. I feel we are going to discover extra of it now I feel we are going to discover extra it’s a prediction I make within the e-book and there might be sometime that I feel we are going to discover another small dinosaur in all probability […] too.

Sabrina: My final query is: what recommendation would you give for novice dinosaur lovers, like the place ought to they go to find out about their favourite dinosaurs?

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: The most effective assets that they might use might be Nationwide and State parks, we’ve got as a public assets is healthier, available for the general public to make use of so I at all times urge the general public to make use of these public assets as a result of then you’re the consumer and you’ll profit from it after which future generations will too. And the pattern of that may be I don’t know the precise identify I haven’t been to it, in Connecticut I feel it’s Dinosaur State Park, in order that’s a dinosaur observe website there in Connecticut that folks can go to. It’s enclosed in a constructing they usually can see a whole bunch of dinosaur tracks from the early Jurassic from about 200 million years in the past there or you may go to Dinosaur Valley State Park the place I did some analysis a few years in the past. I’m at the moment writing an article on the hint information there, Dinosaur Valley State Park that’s in Texas, that has a number of the finest preserved sauropods tracks of anyplace on this planet. Proper there within the state park you may go see them and for dinosaur bones if you wish to see these then, you already know I’m okay with bones, I joke about that all through the e-book like bones, ahh who cares, however really one of many coolest locations you would ever see a dinosaur bones is at Dinosaur Nationwide Monument in Utah.

Sabrina: Oh yeah I’ve been there.

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: I simply heard […] doable to go there make a visit go see it. What’s additionally cool is simply if you’re self-prepared simply go round some dinosaur observe websites round Utah after which there’s a couple of different locations the place you may, in public assets like […] public lands. These are a number of the finest locations to go and see say dinosaur tracks and really feel what’s cool about that. The place you see these tracks, that’s the place the dinosaur was, and also you don’t at all times know that with them however these kinds of assets which might be on the market I say obtainable on the market I say avail your self as a lot as doable, and museums, don’t ignore museums. Museums are unbelievable assets too. A few of them are public, a few of them are personal, however should you can really get to a park or anywhere that has these tracks or bones obtainable for you, the general public, that’s one thing I might do; it’ll fill you with awe.

Sabrina: Nice properly thanks a lot.

Dr. Anthony J. Martin: Thanks Sabrina it was pleasure speaking with you.

Garret: In order Dr. Martin talked about dinosaur tracks play an enormous position in understanding dinosaurs. You possibly can inform whether or not they have been in a herd or whether or not they have been solo. You possibly can inform how shortly they have been transferring and all kinds of issues of that nature. There’s a neat place in Connecticut known as Dinosaur State Park and there’s an internet site dinosaurstatepark.org the place you may be taught extra about it. It’s really a preserved space of dinosaur tracks the place you may see a number of totally different dinosaurs they usually clarify what the dinosaur have been doing in that space at the moment and if you wish to see the precise handle you may as well go to our web site IknowDino.com and we’ve obtained a map of a lot of dinosaur museums and websites. Our dinosaur of the day is Oryctodromeus which is the dinosaur that Dr. Martin talked about having co-discovered.

Sabrina: So Oryctodromeus is Greek for “burrowing runner” and as Dr. Martin stated in his interview, is the primary identified burrowing dinosaur which he and his colleagues discovered an grownup and two juveniles in a fossilized chamber in 2007. That they had died and decayed within the burrow which regarded just like burrows made by hyenas and puffins. Having the juveniles with the grownup suggests parental care and that at the least one motivation for burrows was to maintain the juveniles and the scale of the juveniles suggests an prolonged interval of parental care.

Garret: Oryctodromeus lived through the center of the Cretaceous, which is the tip of the dinosaur period. They lived in South Western Montanna and South Western Idaho. They’re as much as 6.8 ft lengthy and weigh about 70 kilos so they’re one of many small fast dinosaurs that you just think about. They didn’t have lengthy legs and arms like trendy burrowing animals however they did have specialised diversifications like a snout and a tail that was extra versatile than different ornithopods so it may well curl up below floor when it was in it’s little burrows . These diversifications made it resemble a hyena greater than a number of the different trendy burrowing animals. So our enjoyable reality of the day is that the most important dinosaur eggs have been in regards to the dimension of a basketball, the larger the egg the thicker the shell needed to be so if the eggs had been bigger the dinosaur infants might not have been capable of get out. Other than having the ability to escape of the egg shell as a child dinosaur you would even have limits within the permeability of oxygen via the shell as a result of should you think about the infant dinosaur residing inside it has to get all of its oxygen via the shell and it may well solely diffuse so shortly and clearly if you find yourself going via a stable shell there are limits to that.

Sabrina: And that’s it for this episode of I Know Dino. Be part of us subsequent time once we speak to Dr. Phillip Currie, a well-known paleontologists from Canada who can be the creator of the free on-line course Dino 101.

Garret: If you need to be taught extra about dinosaurs or see dinosaur occasions, dinosaur museums or different dinosaur websites round America, United States of America, and somewhat bit in Canada, actually one or two websites up there so for, you may go to IknowDino.com. We stay up for speaking to you subsequent week.

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