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I Know Dino Podcast: Pachyrhinosaurus


    In our forty fourth episode of I Know Dino, we had the pleasure of talking with Christopher Lowman, a fourth 12 months graduate pupil at UC Berkeley, finding out archaeology, who took half in a Royal Tyrell Museum public program and noticed a Pachyrhinosaurus being excavated.

    We additionally speak about Pachyrhinosaurus, a “horned” dinosaur that really had bosses, not horns.

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    On this episode, we focus on:

    • The dinosaur of the day: Pachyrhinosaurus, whose identify means “thick nosed lizard”
    • Lived in Cretaceous in North America
    • Found by Charles M. Sternberg in Alberta Canada in 1946, named the species in 1950
    • Charles M. Sternberg additionally named Edmontonia, he was a Reverend’s son and his sons George, Charles, and Levi additionally hunted for fossils
    • First Pachyrhinosaurus fossils might have been found in 1880, however the ones present in 1946 had been those resulting in it being named in 1950
    • Partial skulls and different fossils have been present in Alberta and Alaska (completely different species), however not many fossils accessible to be studied till the Nineteen Eighties
    • Technically Pachyrhinosaurus is a “horned” dinosaur, nevertheless it didn’t have that many horns
    • Skulls had flattened bosses (as an alternative of horns), with a big one over the nostril and a smaller one over the eyes
    • Bosses are massive, flattened bulges
    • Grownup Pachyrhinosaurus had thick sheaths and padding to cowl their nasal bosses
    • Additionally had a pair of horns from the frill that grew upwards, and small decorative horns on the cranium (different between species and people)
    • Within the 70s, some paleontologists thought that the bosses on Pachyrhinosaurus‘ face had been simply the bottom for big horns that will have damaged off after they died, however no big horns have been discovered up to now
    • In 2013, PLOS One examine referred to as “An Immature Pachyrhinosaurus perotorum (Dinosauria: Ceratopsidae) Nasal Reveals Sudden Complexity of Craniofacial Ontogeny and Integument in Pachyrhinosaurus” discovered a brand new juvenile specimen of P. perotorum in Alaska that confirmed the altering levels of the nasal boss “reveals a extra sophisticated craniofacial ontogeny in Pachyrhinosaurus than beforehand thought”
    • At one level the 2 nasal bones had been totally fused collectively and the nasal posterior might have shortly elongated to accomodate the nasal boss formation
    • Pachyrhinosaurus had bones on its heads, presumably used for head butting (discover mates or combat)
    • Specimens have been discovered with damaged ribs and partially healed ribs, so they might have flanked one another
    • Could have charged predators like a contemporary rhinosaurus
    • Three species discovered: P. lakustai from Wapiti Formation (73.5-72.5 million years in the past), P. canadensis from decrease Horsehose Canyon Formations (71.5-71 million years in the past), P. perotorum from the Prince Creek Formation in Alaska (70-69 million years in the past)
    • P. canadensis was named in 1950, P. lakustai in 2008, P. perotorum in 2012
    • Kind species is P. canadensis
    • 2008: Philip Currie, Wann Langston Jr. and Darren Tanke made an in depth monograph of the cranium of a Pachyrhinosaurus and categorised it as a second species, P. lakustai, named after the one who found it
    • A Pachyrhinosaurus bonebed was present in Alberta within the late Nineteen Eighties, the place paleontologists discovered 3500 bones and 14 skulls (presumably the group tried and did not cross a river throughout a flood); fossils had been from juveniles and adults, so they might have taken care of their younger
    • Al Lakusta discovered the bonebed in 1973
    • Pachyrhinosaurus bones discovered within the bonebed within the Nineteen Eighties had convex (curved outward) and concave (curved inward) bosses, presumably on account of erosion. P. lakustai named after Al Lakusta (science trainer from Alberta)
    • P. perotorum is known as after Ross Perot
    • Species named after Perot as a result of he funded scientific expeditions
    • P. canadensis had eye and snout bosses almost collectively, with curved backwards pointing horns on the frill, two flattened horns that time forwards and down from the highest of the frill, and a flat spherical nasal boss
    • P. lakustai generally has been discovered with two curved backwards pointing horns on the frill, and had a jagged comb extension on the tip of the nasal boss, a pommel on the entrance of the nasal boss, and a comb like horn rising from the center of the frill behind the eyes
    • P. perotorum had eye and snout bosses nearly collectively, a jagged comb extension on the tip of the nasal boss, and a slender dome within the heart of the higher portion of the nasal boss
    • The boss on the nostril was completely different for every species. P. lakustai and P. perotorum had a jagged, comb-like extension on the tip, P. perotorum had a slender dome in the midst of the boss, P. lakustai had a construction popping out of the entrance, P. canadensis had a flat, rounded boss, P. perotorum had two flattened horns from the highest of the frill and P. lakustai had a comb-like horn
    • P. canadensis and P. perotorum, bosses grew collectively, separated by a slender groove (bosses over the nostril and eyes)
    • P. lakustai, two bosses had a big hole
    • P. canadensis and P. lakustai had two small, curved horns that pointed backwards and got here from the frill (P. perotorum didn’t have this, and never all P. lakustai had them, so might have modified based mostly on age or gender)
    • P. canadensis had a flat, spherical nasal boss, P. perotorum had a domed high, some P. lakustai‘s frills had “unicorn horns” however will be the manner the fossils had been preserved (from those within the bonebed)
    • In 2014, Darla Zelenitsky from College of Calgary introduced the discover of a well-preserved Pachyrhinosaurus cranium (75-80% full), present in Alberta’s Badlands
    • Cranium is an grownup’s and is massive (presumably the largest Pachyrhinosaurus cranium found)
    • Discovered the cranium in October 2013, nevertheless it took a couple of months to take away the 5 tons of rock to get the cranium out
    • Could also be a brand new species or could also be a part of the three present ones
    • Cranium is 6.5 to eight ft (2-2.5 m) lengthy, and animal was 6 m lengthy, so was very high heavy
    • Largest Pachyrhinosaurus species was 26 ft (8 m) lengthy and weighed about 4 tons
    • Lived close to different dinosaurs together with ceratopsians Anchiceratops and Montanoceratops, hadrosaur Edmontosaurus regalis, theropods together with Saurornithoides, Saurornitholestes and Troodon, presumably the ornithopod Thescelosaurus and tyrannosaurid Albertosaurus
    • Largely hadrosaurs within the space
    • Pachyrhinosaurus had a brief tail
    • 18-23 ft (5.5-7m) lengthy
    • Could have been quick, operating as much as 20 mph
    • Had small, primitive listening to equipment, so most likely not superb listening to
    • Additionally lowered olfactory centres, so most likely had a poor sense of scent
    • Had poor imaginative and prescient too, based mostly on a examine of its mind cavity discovering a not effectively developed optic heart
    • Herbivores, with robust cheek enamel (ate fibrous vegetation)
    • Changed enamel commonly
    • Beak at entrance of snout, most likely cropped vegetation; had rows of enamel
    • Most likely ate cycads, palms
    • Could have eaten newly developed flowering vegetation
    • Could have migrated to hotter climates
    • Could have migrated, following coastal plains, or stayed in the identical space. Undecided why they’re present in Alberta and Alaska
    • Fossils usually discovered close to Edmontosaurus (might have traveled collectively?)
    • Could have reached maturity at round 9 years outdated, based mostly on Gregory Erickson’s and Patrick Druckenmiller’s examine of Pachyrhinosaurus femurs (most likely solely lived to about 19 or 20 years outdated)
    • Pachyrhinosaurus was the official mascot of 2010 Arctic Winter Video games as a result of a bonebed was close to Grand Prairie Alberta (competitors for athletes within the north)
    • Pachyrhinosaurus was the star of Strolling with Dinosaurs: The Film in 2013 (featured Patchi and his brother Scowler and their herd
    • Pachyrhinosaurus was additionally in Disney’s Dinosaur in 2000 (terrible lot like Land Earlier than Time)
    • Pachyrhinosaurus additionally within the Historical past Channel TV present Jurassic Combat Membership
    • The Phillip J. Currie Museum opened up at first of September, and along with watching documentaries and lifelike skeletons, guests can construct a pachyrhinosaurus with magnets on the wall
    • Pachyrhinosaurus is a part of the clade Pachyrostra, which is a part of the tribe Pachyrhinosaurini, which is a part of the household Ceratopsidae, which is a part of the clade Marginocephalia
    • Marginocephalia means “fringed heads” and contains pachycephalosaurids and horned ceratopsians (all herbivores, with bony ridge or frill at again of the cranium)
    • Lived in Jurassic and Cretaceous
    • Ceratopsidae had been quadrupedal herbivores from the Cretaceous, with most residing in North America (some in Asia)
    • Had beaks, rows of shearing enamel, and horns and grills
    • Subfamilies are Chasmosaurinae of Centrosaurinae
    • Pachyrhinosaurini was a subfamily of Centrosaurinae
    • Enjoyable Reality: The Prince Creek Formation (PCF) of northern Alaska preserves one of the various and prolific assemblages of polar dinosaurs recognized anyplace on the earth. Thus far, proof for at the very least 13 completely different dinosaurian taxa are recognized from early Maastrichtian horizons of the unit, together with 5 ornithischians, seven non-avian theropods, and an avialan theropod

    For individuals who might favor studying, see under for the total transcript of our interview with Christopher:

    SABRINA: Thanks Christopher for becoming a member of us immediately.


    SABRINA: So that you’re an archaeology pupil, however have you ever ever, effectively first let’s speak about what’s the distinction between archaeology and paleontology?

    CHRISTOPHER LOWMAN: Properly, I get requested if I dig up dinosaurs extra usually than I get requested if I dig up historic folks. Truly, I do neither. Archaeologists work on the fabric stays of the previous, nevertheless it’s not essentially even the traditional previous. I give attention to issues from solely 300 years in the past in my analysis, however I nonetheless suppose dinosaurs are cool.

    SABRINA: Have you ever ever thought of going into paleontology?

    CHRISTOPHER LOWMAN: Sure, completely. It was what received me into the mindset of pondering of the previous as one thing that was very materials, one thing that we may discover simply by going out and on the lookout for it. I wished to be a paleontologist from after I was three till I used to be an adolescent.

    SABRINA: What modified?

    CHRISTOPHER LOWMAN:I went on a paleontology dig and realized that it wasn’t simply dinosaurs. It was really with the Royal Tyrell in the summertime applications they do for youths. I used to be ten, and I’d been advised after I was three and I first received all for dinosaurs that I may go on a dig sometime, and my dad and mom regarded it up and located that ten was often the age that they let youngsters exit and assist for a day or two. So I reminded them each birthday that I used to be one 12 months nearer to with the ability to go on a dinosaur dig, and so they discovered an exquisite program at Royal Tyrell. And after I visited the museum it was on a street journey with my dad. We went all throughout the nation and as much as Canada to the place Royal Tyrell is in Alberta, and spent a couple of days going out to the dig and serving to apply plaster and use brushes, issues that a bit child may do. However we visited Dinosaur Nationwide Monument, we went to museums in Montana, it was form of a dinosaur street journey with my dad which was fairly cool. However on the Royal Tyrell, on the time, and I feel it’s nonetheless there, there was an exhibit on Burgess shale on Cambrian creatures that I’d by no means heard of earlier than, and that really received me pondering: am I all for simply dinosaurs or am I all for something that it’s doable to exit and discover in an excavation? And so I began re-thinking, and I cherished historical past, so finally I switched to archaeology.

    SABRINA: Do you’ve got a specific focus in archaeology?

    CHRISTOPHER LOWMAN:I do, I do historic archaeology. So issues from about 300 years in the past and extra not too long ago. I’m actually all for immigration, the motion of individuals around the globe, and the issues that they introduced with them. I’m additionally all for museum archeology and finding out the objects that we’ve got already in museums, however discovering extra about them. And my love for museums completely comes out of eager to be a paleontologist after I was a child, and spending hours and hours on the Academy of Sciences once they used to have all of the completely different dinosaur shows, and going to different museums such as you mentioned, with my mother or dad.

    SABRINA: So because you’re a Berkley pupil, have you ever made it to Cal Day once they open up extra of their dinosaurs?

    CHRISTOPHER LOWMAN:I’ve, completely. We all the time do an archaeology part on Cal Day for youths, which is de facto enjoyable. However afterwards I received to discover the campus and go over to the Valley Life Science Constructing, and I like that any time you go in you’ll be able to see the […] (00:03:51) cranium and the mannequin T-rex, and that’s actually cool. However with the ability to return and have a look at the fossils that they’ve was nice.

    GARRET: We gotta go.

    SABRINA: Yeah. We have to go, we haven’t made it but, however one in every of today. Considered one of these years. So how did your dad and mom discover out about this program on the Royal Tyrell museum?

    CHRISTOPHER LOWMAN: That’s query. We didn’t have the Web on the time that they regarded it up, which was humorous as a result of that’s how I’d look it up. I’m undecided really. They had been all the time actually good at fostering no matter I used to be all for on the time, and I went via every kind of phases however dinosaurs actually caught round. So we had videotapes and audiotapes and books and something dinosaur. The factor that first received me was when a buddy of the household introduced again some plastic dinosaurs from the Pure Historical past Museum in London, and that form of sparked my curiosity together with issues just like the dinosaur scene in Fantasia or, I don’t know, did both of you ever take heed to the audio tapes of Dinosaur World? Or Misplaced In Dinosaur World?

    SABRINA: No I haven’t heard that, what’s that?

    CHRISTOPHER LOWMAN: They had been a sequence of quick books that had been all the time accompanied by audio books with sound results and actors and issues that pretended that there was a zoo of dinosaurs. And what it could be like for youths or households to go and go to the dinosaurs. This was earlier than Jurassic Park, and a a lot tamer thought of what would outcome from a theme park with stay dinosaurs. Largely they only go and watch, though they get into a couple of scrapes. However I cherished the concept, and really in that ebook, within the audio ebook, on the very starting one of many characters is, Escape From Dinosaur World, one of many characters is tuning right into a radio station referred to as W Dino, and the announcement at first sounds identical to the announcement at first of your podcast. W Dino! And so I believed perhaps you bought impressed by that.

    SABRINA: No, however that’s superior that there’s a connection. We’re going to should go examine that out. So that you requested that we cowl a Pachyrhinosaurus. Is that your favourite dinosaur, or what’s your connection?

    CHRISTOPHER LOWMAN: The Pachyrhinosaurus, I’d by no means heard of earlier than going to the Royal Tyrell. And it was the dinosaur that was being excavated when my dad and I went out with the paleontologists and received to assist out. So it was the primary dinosaur that I’d ever seen in a fossil mattress being excavated. And so as a result of I received to assist out on it, I received to study extra a couple of dinosaur. And it’s notably bizarre. It’s a very unusual trying dinosaur. It doesn’t match the form of dream-like familiarity that you just get with Tyrannosaurus rex or Triceratops. It simply appears weird and alien, and I like that it was so completely different from what I anticipated.

    SABRINA: Are you able to inform us a bit about, do you get to assist out with the dig in any respect, or was it extra watching, what was each day life like at this camp?

    CHRISTOPHER LOWMAN: We received to assist out, we solely went out to the dig a pair instances. I used to be ten, and it was the badlands. Digging via stable rock is hard, and I keep in mind having to drink quite a lot of water and eat quite a lot of chips with the intention to get via the day. We had been down subsequent to the fossils. We got brushes, two brushes, and we had been cleansing them. Which, to a ten 12 months outdated, appeared actually cool really, and I do know now since we do the identical factor in archaeology that even that’s actually useful. That it’s not only a faux job for a child. That they are surely serving to on the dig. This system that I keep in mind doing, we went out for a lot of the day, after which went again for a second day. Wanting via the web site immediately, I don’t see one thing that matches up with my reminiscence. However, then once more, I used to be ten. However I do see that they’ve dig days, when households can exit, youngsters exit and do the identical factor that I keep in mind for a part of the day.

    A part of this system was additionally being given excursions of the museum and with the ability to meet paleontologists, and that was a really memorable half too. Not solely seeing the museum however being advised how the museum was put collectively, and a bit little bit of the historical past, what the displays meant.

    SABRINA: Do you keep in mind which paleontologist you bought to satisfy?

    CHRISTOPHER LOWMAN: No I don’t. I simply thought they had been cool, and so they had hats and bandanas.

    SABRINA: Good. So would you advocate this camp to youngsters that had been all for dinosaurs?

    CHRISTOPHER LOWMAN: Completely. The Royal Tyrell is the very best dinosaur museum that I’ve been to. And the truth that they provide camps and so they supply programs and every kind of issues is a very nice technique to not simply think about with the ability to be concerned with paleontology, however actually with the ability to attain out and get entangled.

    GARRET: Is that the place the Dino 101 course was via?

    SABRINA: No that’s the College of Alberta.

    GARRET: However it’s the identical man, curator.

    SABRINA: So Dr. Phil Curry, I don’t know in the event you’re acquainted, is the paleontologist. Yeah and he labored on the Royal Tyrell.

    GARRET: He does this free on-line class referred to as Dino 101, it’s actually superior.

    CHRISTOPHER LOWMAN: I heard about it via podcasts and now I’m .

    GARRET: It was fairly enjoyable.

    SABRINA: Yeah. I feel it runs often round January, so…

    CHRISTOPHER LOWMAN: I’ll look it up.

    SABRINA: Yeah. Do you suppose you’d ever go once more to a Royal Tyrell dig or one in every of these sorts of applications?

    CHRISTOPHER LOWMAN: Properly, I often go on digs myself throughout the summer time, however they’re after all they’re archaeology digs, fairly than paleontology digs. The ability set is considerably completely different sufficient that I’m undecided I’d go once more for some other purpose than to have enjoyable, or if I’ve a child sometime to deliver my child to do it, as a result of that I’d completely do. In paleontology, a lot of it’s an intersection with geology, whereas for my explicit space of archeology, as a result of I’m coping with objects which have survived for causes aside from turning into rock, I don’t should pay as a lot consideration to the chemistry of geology, the sedimentary layers, and fairly I’m simply occupied with completely different deposits within the floor and the way the objects match into these deposits. So theoretically it’s related, however methodologically it requires a really completely different set of data. So I don’t suppose that I’d get entangled in a paleontology dig professionally since at this level I don’t have the ability set. However I’d undoubtedly return to that form of program if I used to be accompanied by a child.

    SABRINA: Attention-grabbing.

    GARRET: So the place do you go digging for archaeology?

    CHRISTOPHER LOWMAN: Wherever. I’ve labored in Turkey, in England, in Hawaii, within the British Virgin Islands, and in California, really right here in San Francisco. Most of these digs I’m serving to different folks out, so different graduate college students in my program, or professors from after I was an undergrad. So, these aren’t my very own digs however digs that I’ve been capable of take part in.

    GARRET: Was all that stuff round that point interval you’re all for? So that you’re probably not digging in rock and stuff like that, it’s extra like filth?

    CHRISTOPHER LOWMAN: We had been digging in a mix of filth, generally it was sand, generally it was mud, and really they’re from all completely different time durations. Turkey was a 9 thousand 12 months outdated metropolis, however we had been digging via basically dried mud. In England I used to be engaged on a Roman fort, and a Viking city up in York. Right here in California, that’s the time interval that I’m most all for. Gold rush period and extra not too long ago. However relying on the soil you’re digging via, preservation may be actually completely different. In San Francisco […] (00:12:53) is anoxic, so it doesn’t let oxygen during which causes materials to decay. And so with out oxygen, you’ll be able to pull out materials that appears as if it had been very soiled, however buried only a few days in the past.

    GARRET: Yeah that’s very cool.

    SABRINA: Do you’ve got any recommendation for youthful individuals who could be all for paleontology or archaeology, one thing alongside these traces?

    CHRISTOPHER LOWMAN: Like I mentioned earlier, I used to be actually fortunate as a result of my dad and mom supported my pursuits, and did so by discovering books and flicks and applications just like the one on the Royal Tyrell for me to be concerned in, and that’s completely led to my profession now. Clearly not the identical profession, however very influenced by it. So I’d say in the event you’re all for one thing, in the event you’re all for dinosaurs or in the event you’re all for one thing else, then youngsters go for it. However dad and mom, work out ways in which if it’s doable help that curiosity and see the place it goes. It may possibly make an enormous distinction.

    SABRINA: Properly, thanks a lot.


    SABRINA: Pleasure speaking to you.

    CHRISTOPHER LOWMAN: Pleasure speaking to you too.