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I Know Dino Podcast: Parasaurolophus


    Episode 33 is all about Parasaurolophus, a “duck-billed” hadrosaur.

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    On this episode, we talk about:

    • The dinosaur of the day: Parasaurolophus, whose title means “close to crested lizard
    • Lived in North America within the Cretaceous
    • Fossils present in Alberta, Canada, New Mexico and Utah
    • Fossils first present in 1920
    • First described in 1922 by William Parks, based mostly on a partial skeleton and cranium present in Alberta
    • Named after Sir Byron Edmund Walker, chairman of the board of trustees of the Royal Ontario Museum
    • Estimated size of 31 ft (9.5 m), weighed 2.5 tons, cranium about 5 ft (1.6 m) lengthy
    • Each bipedal and quadrupedal
    • Most likely ran on two legs, however walked on all fours when consuming
    • Regarded as intently associated to Saurolophus (due to similar-ish crest); however now considered an offshoot of lambeosaurines, completely different from Corythosaurus (episode 31)
    • Regarded as just like Saurolophus initially due to its crest (however Saurolophus is a part of the sub-family Saurolophus, which had no crests or strong crests) Parasaurolophus’ crest was hole and is a part of lambeosaurine sub-family)
    • Three species: Parasaurolophus walkeri (kind species), Parasaurolophus tubicen, and Parasaurolophus cyrtocristatus (short-crested)
    • P. walkeri has a straight crest and easy tubes; P. tubicen has an extended crest with advanced tubs; P. cyrtocristatus has smallest, most curved crest
    • One specimen of P. walkeri could have had a illness. That is based mostly on a v-shaped hole within the vertebrae, close to the bottom of the neck (although one other interpretation is there was a pores and skin flap/ligament to help the pinnacle or the fossils had been broken throughout preparation)
    • Charles H. Sternberg discovered a partial cranium in 1921 within the Kirtland Formation in New Mexico; despatched to Uppsala, Sweden, and Carl Wiman described the second species, Parasaurolophus tubicen (tubicen comes from the Latin phrase for “trumpeter”
    • In 1995 a second, practically full P. tubicen cranium was present in New Mexico
    • P. tubicen existed barely later than P. cyrtocristatus in New Mexico, and lived amongst ornithischians, saurischians, pterosaurs, turtles, and fish
    • In 1961 John Ostrom described the third species, P. cyrtocristatus, based mostly on a partial cranium with a brief crest and most of a skeleton (title comes from Latin curtus “shortened” and cristatus “crested”
    • New Mexico on the time of P. cyrtocristatus was swampy, near the Cretaceous Inside Seaway
    • P. cyrtocristatus most likely lived amongst Pentaceratops sternbergii (ceratopsian), pachycephalosaur Stegoceras novomexicanum
    • P. tubicen is largest species, P. cyrtocristatus is smallest
    • In 2014 PLOS ONE printed a examine by Xing about one other potential species, P. jiayensis (initially Charonosaurus jiayensis, present in China)
    • Charonosaurus was named after Charon (boater in Greek mythology who rowed the deceased throughout the underworld)
    • Dinosaurs within the late Cretaceous in North America had been similar to the dinosaurs in Eurasia (Charonosaurus was barely bigger)
    • Parasaurolophus had a hole crest, with tubes that ran from every nostril to the top of the crest (most advanced tubes in P. tubicen, and easier crests in P. walkeri)
    • Till the Nineteen Sixties, scientists thought hadrosaurids had been amphibious (and thought the crest helped them keep underwater)
    • Now, they suppose it might have been used for temperature regulation, make low-frequency sounds (to alert others)–Wiman urged in 1931 when describing P. tubicen because the crest’s inner construction was just like a swan–additionally, hardosaurid interior ears are just like crocodile, so could have been delicate to excessive frequencies)
    • Scientists used to suppose the crest was used to both help the pinnacle/neck, preserve water out of its lungs (again after they thought it was amphibious), used as a snorkel, used as a weapon, used as a department guard (but it surely most likely ate low-lying vegetation), saved salt glands (present in marine animals, however doesn’t clarify the distinction within the crests of the three species), gave a higher sense of odor
    • P.E. Wheeler proposed thermoregulation in 1978 (floor space of crest took in warmth through the day and dissipated at evening)
    • In 2009, 17-year-old Kevin Terris, went with paleontologist Andrew Farke on a fossil hunt, and he discovered “Joe” the infant Parasaurolophus (additionally one of the best preserved specimen)
    • Parasaurolophus began rising its crest at 25% grownup dimension (ahead of Corythosaurus, which can be why the crests are larger); additionally Parasaurolophus grew quick
    • Parasaurolophus “Joe” was about one yr outdated, 25% grownup sized
    • Joe’s cranium crest had a little bit bump, which exhibits how drastically the form of the crest modified all through a Parasaurolophus‘ life
    • Joe is known as after Joe Augustyn (household sponsored the skeleton preparation)
    • Can see Joe on show on the Raymond M. Alf Museum of Paleontology
    • See for a digital museum about Joe
    • Within the Nineteen Nineties, some American paleontologists and laptop scientists scanned a Parasaurolophus cranium and simulated the sounds it most likely made
    • Parasaurolophus sounds modified after puberty (youthful ones might hear and emit larger frequency sounds)
    • Parasaurolophus was a herd animal
    • Migrated from shorelines to larger grounds to breed
    • Pebbly scale prints had been discovered on one Parasaurolophus skeleton
    • Slender beak, so most likely choosier about what it ate
    • Frequently changed tooth; had tons of of tooth and a beak to crop vegetation
    • Lived in a heat local weather (hotter than Alberta immediately), no frost, wetter and drier seasons
    • A lot of conifers, in addition to ferns and angiosperms
    • No pure defenses (like Corythosaurus)
    • Most likely prey to Albertosaurus, Gorgosaurus and Daspletosaurus (simpler to hunt than a ceratopsian with horns)
    • Different predators could have been Bistahieversor, Teratophoneus, and Troodon (particularly to smaller, youthful Parasaurolophus)
    • However might run on two legs
    • Hadrosaurs had been the biggest land animals that would run on two legs
    • Different dinosaurs in North America within the Cretaceous included Albertosaurus, Nanotyrannus, Lambeosaurus, Pachyrhinosaurus
    • Parasaurolophus was in Jurassic Park 1, 2, 3 (brief appearances, consuming from a lake, in a discipline, captured by InGen, and so on.)
    • The Parasaurolophus in Jurassic Park 2 was nicknamed Elvis, due to its pompadour-like horn (and the character Roland Tembo didn’t trouble to be taught the dinosaur’s title)
    • Jack Horner stated that the actors of Jurassic Park had a tough time announcing Parasaurolophus
    • A model of Parasaurolophus appeared in Star Trek Voyager (they had been humanoid aliens known as “Voths”, descended from Parasaurolophus however fled the galaxy earlier than dinosaurs went extinct)
    • Parasaurolophus was additionally Ducky in Land Earlier than Time
    • Hadrosaurid household is recognized for his or her crests on their heads (could also be used to assist acknowledge people, make sounds, or assist regulate physique temperature)
    • Enjoyable Truth: Inside an space of about 40 sq. kilometers, greater than 200 oviraptorosaurian nests with eggs have been found within the Ganzhou area.