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I Know Dino Podcast Present Notes: Barosaurus (Episode 73)


    Episode 73 is all about Barosaurus, a sauropod with a 30 ft lengthy neck, one of many longest necks of any dinosaur.

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    On this episode, we focus on:

    • The dinosaur of the day: Barosaurus
    • Title means “heavy lizard”
    • Lived within the Jurassic
    • Sort species is Barosaurus lentus
    • Lentus means “sluggish” in Latin
    • Fossils discovered within the Morrison Formation
    • Bones first discovered by the postmistress of Pottsville, South Daktoa, Ms. E.R. Ellerman
    • Charles Marsh and John Bell Hatcher (from Yale College) excavated the fossils in 1889. They solely discovered 6 tail vertebrae then. Marsh named it Barosaurus lentus
    • The remainder of the sort specimen wasn’t excavated till 1898 (left within the floor). Marsh’s assistant George Rieber Wieland dug up the bones and located extra vertebrae, rib and limb bones
    • Rachel Hatch, who owned the land Barosaurus was discovered, guarded the land till Marsh’s assistant might dig it up
    • In 1912, Earl Douglass (fossil hunter) excavated 4 neck vertebrae, discovered close to a Diplodocus, however then William Jacob Holland mentioned they have been a part of a unique species (ended up being Barosaurus)
    • Barosaurus was totally described in 1919 by Richard Swann Lull. Based mostly on the outline, the bones Earl Douglass discovered have been thought-about to be a second partial Barosaurus skeleton (second specimen is within the rock wall at Dinosaur Nationwide Monument, wasn’t ready till the Nineteen Eighties)
    • Douglass discovered probably the most full Barosaurus in 1923 (fossils from this skeleton have been unfold throughout the College of Utah, Nationwide Museum of Pure Historical past in D.C., and Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh. Then in 1929 Barnum Brown had all of the bones shipped to the American Museum of Pure Historical past in NY (nonetheless there as we speak); can see a solid of Barosaurus mounted within the museum in a controversial place, rearing as much as defend its younger from an Allosaurus
    • David Evans rediscovered a Barosaurus skeleton in 2007 within the Royal Ontario Museum in Toronto. Earl Douglass had discovered the skeleton within the early 1900s and the museum had traded with the Carnegie Museum for it in 1962. However it was forgotten about till David Evans noticed a reference to it within the assortment
    • At first it was categorised as Atlantosauridae, however in 1898 it was categorised as a diplodocid
    • Marsh named two smaller metatarsals that Wieland had discovered as Barosaurus affinis, but it surely’s now thought-about a junior synonym of Barosaurus lentus
    • One species that at one time was generally known as Barosaurus is Tornieria africana. What occurred was in 1907 Eberhard Fraas discovered two sauropods in German East Africa (Tanzania) and he known as them Gigantosaurus. However that genus title already belonged to a sauropod from England, so the Tanzania bones have been renamed Tornieria in 1911. The bones have been studied extra intently and Werner Janensch reclassified them as Barosaurus. However some paleontologists although the bones have been too distinct, and in 2006 they have been redescribed and known as Tornieria
    • Barosaurus is intently associated to Diplodocus
    • About the identical size as Diplodocus, however had an extended neck and shorter tail
    • No cranium has been discovered, however most likely just like Diplodocus and Apatosaurus, with lengthy skulls and peg-like enamel
    • Whiplash tail, like Diplodocus
    • Very massive, as much as 85 ft (26 m) lengthy and weighing about 20 tons
    • Had forelimbs proportionately longer than different diplodocids, however shorter than most different sorts of sauropods
    • No toes discovered, however most likely had 5 toes on every foot, with a big claw on the forefeet
    • Different dinosaurs within the Morrison Formation that lived concurrently Barosaurus embrace Camptosaurus, Dryosaurus, Stegosaurus, Othnielosaurus.
    • Additionally predatory dinosaurs Saurophaganax, Torvosaurus, Ceratosaurus, Marshosaurus, Stokesosaurus, Ornitholestes, Allosaurus
    • Different animals that lived on the time have been snails, frogs, ray-finned fish, salamanders, turtles, lizards, and a few pterosaurs, in addition to some early mammals.
    • Vegetation included algae, fungi, moss, horsetails, cycads, ginkgoes, and conifers
    • Barosaurus had a protracted neck which will have helped it eat meals with out shifting an excessive amount of, or helped get trip of extra physique warmth
    • Had a 30 foot lengthy neck (one of many longest necks of any dinosaur)
    • The best way Barosaurus cervical vertebrae is structured means it might simply transfer its neck horizontally however not vertically. This implies it most likely ate meals totally different from different diplodocids
    • Most likely swept its neck at floor stage for meals (not a excessive browser)
    • In 2009, Taylor, Wedel and Naish mentioned that sauropods most likely held their necks excessive
    • Seymour and Lillywhite mentioned that an 80-foot lengthy Barosaurus would require 700mmHg blood stress for blood to succeed in its head. This implies the left ventricle of its coronary heart must weigh 2 tons, and it appears unlikely such a big coronary heart would have existed. So that they most likely had a smaller coronary heart and couldn’t have held its head up that top
    • In 1978, Robert Bakker mentioned sauropods “might have used contractions of neck musculature as a relay pump to hold the cranial arterial provide” (however there’s no proof of this)
    • Proof that some sauropods did maintain their heads up excessive (like Giraffatitan, held its head as much as 26 ft above its coronary heart); good for locating meals; but it surely’s unclear how they have been ready to do that or how huge their hearts would have been (no comfortable tissue to review)
    • Why deliver this up? Nicely the best way Barosaurus is mounted on the American Museum of Pure Historical past is controversial, as a result of it’s rearing up and its neck is excessive
    • Rearing up is a controversial pose as a result of it will have been tough on its coronary heart. Most likely held its neck parallel to the bottom or it had blood accelerators or pseudo-hearts in its neck to assist pump blood (no proof of this)
    • Barosaurus rearing up most likely would have fallen and damaged its neck
    • Solely two Barosaurus skeletons on show on this planet: AMNH and Royal Ontario Museum (can see authentic pores and skin imprint there)
    • AMNH used to even have a mannequin of a juvenile Barosaurus (been within the Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Orientation Heart in AMNH since 1996) was eliminated to make method for the brand new titanosaur
    • Peter Sohn, director of The Good Dinosaur, talked about remembering visiting the AMNH as a child and being amazed by the Barosaurus. He mentioned in an NPR article, “There was a barosaurus within the atrium. It was sort of standing on two legs, and it blew me away, that factor. … It ignites the creativeness to assume that one thing that enormous might’ve roamed round New York.”
    • Can now see that specimen on the Royal Ontario Museum (after being discovered once more); it’s the biggest mounted dinosaur in Canada (90 ft, 27.5 m lengthy); the cranium is of a Diplodocus (no cranium discovered)
    • The bones are mounted in a method they are often eliminated for paleontologists to review and exchange once more with out disrupting the remainder of the skeleton. Extra of its bones have been present in storage, and could also be added to the specimen (might find yourself being probably the most full Barosaurus recognized). Nickname is “Gordo.”
    • Can see Barosaurus in The Land Earlier than Time: The Nice Longneck Migration, as background characters who be a part of Littlefoot and his household’s herd
      Science Blogs has a submit exhibiting outdated depictions of Barosaurus that have been very unsuitable. Drawings present Barosaurus elevating its head actually excessive, having a versatile tongue and veiny neck, galloping, and with a brief tail
    • The household Diplodocidae means “double beams”
    • Contains Diplodocus, Apatosaurus, Supersaurus, Barosaurus, Brontosaurus
    • In comparison with titanosaurs and brachiosaurs, dipodocids have been slender and lengthy, with brief legs, and their again legs have been longer than their entrance legs
    • Many might have had spines on its again
    • Very lengthy necks, might not have been capable of raise heads as excessive up as different sauropods
    • Had small heads and peg-like enamel
    • Most likely didn’t chew, however swallowed gastroliths to digest their meals
    • Had lengthy, whip-like tails that they may snap
    • Diplodocidae was initially generally known as Amphicoelidae (named by Edward Cope in 1878), however grew to become a forgotten title; Charles Marsh additionally named the household Atlantosauridae again in 1877, however that additionally grew to become a forgotten title (nomen oblitum)
    • Barosaurus is within the subfamily Diplodocinae, which additionally contains Diplodocus, Tornieria and Dinheirosaurus
    • This subfamily lived within the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous
    • Different subfamily is Apatosaurines
    • Diplodocines have been extra slender and had longer necks and tails
    • Enjoyable truth: Classification of fossilized eggs is named vererovata. And they’re categorised into oofamilies, oogenera, and oospecies which may usually be known as ootaxa. All of these phrases begin with “oo” as a result of it’s the traditional greek prefix for “egg” sort of like ovum.

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