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I Know Dino Podcast Present Notes: Concavenator (Episode 63)


    Episode 63 is all about Concavenator, a carcharodontosaur with quill knobs and a hump again.

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    On this episode, we focus on:

    • The dinosaur of the day: Concavenator corcovatus
    • Theropod, lived within the early Cretaceous
    • Sort species is Concavenator corcovatus
    • Title means “hump backed hunter from Cuenca”
    • Fossils had been present in 2003
    • Named in 2010; paleontologists José Luis Sanz, Francisco Ortega and Fernando Escaso discovered the fossil
    • Holotype is an almost full, articulated skeleton (now on the Museo de las Ciencias de Castilla-La Mancha in Spain, and it’s on show)
    • Most full carcharodontosaur, and first to point out proof of feathers or one thing like feathers
    • Most basal Carcharodontosauridae
    • Concavenator had small bumps on its forelimbs
    • They’re considered quill knobs
    • In birds, quill knobs anchor the roots of the feathers on their wings
    • Different animals with quill knobs on its forelimbs embrace theropods like Velociraptor
    • Scales wouldn’t have follicles, and Concavenator‘s bumps have follicular buildings, which implies Concavenator had quill knobs, and subsequently appendages, much like feathers
    • Quill knobs imply it had feathers, or some sort of pores and skin construction that was a prequel to feathers
    • Earlier than Concavenator, fossils from coelurosaurs (a theropod group with feathers) confirmed that birds advanced from dinosaurs; however Concavenator was a carcharodontosaurid not a coelurosaur; its final shared widespread ancestor with coelurosaurs was within the Center Jurassic. Concavenator’s quill knobs was the primary proof of a theropod dinosaurs outdoors the coelurosaur group coated in one thing aside from scales
    • Again in 2010, confirmed that feathers had been extra widespread amongst theropods than scientists had thought, and that feathers might seem on bigger dinosaurs and never cowl a whole physique
    • Luis Chiappe, director of The Dinosaur Institute on the Pure Museum of LA County, advised Discovery Information in 2010 that Concavenator “reveals that feathers weren’t restricted to simply small dinosaurs, even when they didn’t need to cowl their total our bodies. This fossil affords extra help documenting the dinosaurian ancestry of birds and the declare that birds reside dinosaurs.”
    • Might have had some sparse protofeathers on its decrease arms (however no feathers discovered with the fossils, so not completely certain it was feathers)
    • Feathers or feather buildings might have helped with thermal management, or helped with aerodynamics
    • Because the quill knobs are solely on the forearms, they had been in all probability used for show
    • Not everybody believes these are literally quill knobs. Darren Naish mentioned these bumps had been irregularly spaced, and that many animals have one thing comparable alongside their intermuscular traces (they had been muscular insertion factors)
    • Elana Cuesta, Ortega and Sanz (who described Concavenator in 2010) studied the bumps once more and offered their findings on the 2015 assembly of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, the place they concluded that the bumps had been quill knobs, although it was uncommon for them to be on the highest floor of the bone. Nevertheless, this may be seen in some trendy birds, such because the Moorhen
    • Additionally discovered impressions that present it had vast, rectangular scales below its tail and ft
    • Additionally notable: two tall vertebrae in entrance of the hips shaped a tall, slender, pointed crest (probably had a hump) on the again
    • Had a brief, however tall sail or hump that was solely on its decrease again (regarded like a dorsal fin)
    • Francisco Ortega has mentioned the hump might have regarded much like humps we see on some trendy cows
    • Tall neural spines have been present in spinosaurids, carcharodontosaurids and a few tetanurans earlier than, however not solely on the decrease again. Concavenator’s again hump operate is unclear, since it’s so brief
    • Hump or sail on its decrease again (above the hips) might have been used for show, thermoregulation, or to retailer fats or one thing else
    • Becklespinax has been in comparison with Concavenator and a few scientists assume they may very well be the identical genera (they’re comparable in measurement, look alike; have the hump); however arduous to know, since Becklespinax all we all know is 3 dorsal vertebrae; additionally Becklespinax is 10 million years older
    • About 20 ft (6 m) lengthy
    • Practically full cranium
    • Quick, stout claws
    • Lived in wetlands
    • Concavenator reveals that carcharadontosaurids lived in Europe and the northern continents, along with South America, Africa and Australia
    • Carcharodontosaurids (title means “shark-toothed lizards) had been carnivorous theropods
    • Ernst Stromer named the household in 1931
    • Household contains Giganotosaurus, Mapusaurus, Carcharodontosaurus, and Tyrannotitan (all about similar measurement or bigger than T-rex)
    • Carcharodontosaurids and spinosaurids had been the biggest predators in Gondwana within the early and center Cretaceous
    • Enjoyable Reality: Partly from the “introduction on taxonomy” in There are numerous naming conference suffixes for taxonomy (teams like Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Household, Genus, Species) (and we frequently quote analysis that makes use of them so much). The 2 most typical appear to be: teams of households (superfamily)–oidea (typically shortened to “oid”), household–thought (typically shortened to “id”). Superfamilies are particularly helpful as a result of most dinosaurs have a singular genus and taking T-rex, for instance, speaking in regards to the household (Tyrannosauridae) leaves out loads of comparable dinosaurs whereas going as much as the order Saurischia (and even suborder theropoda) is commonly too broad. Plus it helps cut back arguments about which particular household a genus is in; and as an alternative we are able to simply discuss their traits.