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I Know Dino Podcast Present Notes: Irritator (Episode 96)


    Episode 96 is all about Irritator, a spinosaurid theropod whose identify comes “from irritation, the sensation the authors felt (understated right here) when discovering that the snout had been artificially elongated.”

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    On this episode, we focus on:

    • The dinosaur of the day: Irritator
    • Irritaor is a spinosaurid theropod that lived within the Early Cretaceous in what’s now Brazil
    • Described in 1996 by Martill, Cruikskank, Frey, Small, and Clarke
    • A brand new crested maniraptoran dinosaur from the Santana Formation (Decrease Cretaceous) of Brazil, revealed in 1996
    • Extra absolutely described in Irritator challengeri, a Spinosaurid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Decrease Cretaceous of Brazil, revealed in 2002
    • Just one fossil discovered, of an 32 in (80 cm) lengthy cranium
    • Almost full cranium
    • Not nicely preserved, there was plaster that obscured the fossil (added by fossil poachers who illegally bought the fossil to make the fossil look extra full)
    • The patrons didn’t notice the quantity of labor required to revive the fossil once they purchased it, and they also named it Irritator
    • The authors wrote the identify got here “from irritation, the sensation the authors felt (understated right here) when discovering that the snout had been artificially elongated”
    • Sort species is Irritator challengeri, and the species identify is in honor of Professor Challenger, a personality in Arthur Conan Doyle’s The Misplaced World (story about an expedition to the Amazon Basin the place the characters discover dinosaurs)
    • Unknown the place precisely the fossil was discovered (because it was bought illegally), however in all probability got here from the Romualdo Member of the Santana Formation, based mostly on the kind of rock
    • This space is about 110 million years previous, and got here from a time when Africa and South America had been nonetheless related within the north of Brazil
    • In all probability ate fish
    • Could have eaten different animals (no matter it might catch). There’s a pterosaur discovered with a tooth, in all probability from Irritator, in its neck, so might have eaten pterosaurs
    • Had skinny enamel, good for catching slippery prey
    • Continuously changed enamel
    • Cranium seems lots like Suchomimus and Spinosaurus (crocodile-like head)
    • Had nostrils behind its cranium (crocodile-like head)
    • Thought to have a Sagittal crest, a bony ridge on the highest of the cranium that’s hooked up to the jaw muscle mass
    • Sagittal crest means it in all probability had robust neck muscle mass, so might shut its jaws shortly even in water, however that doesn’t imply it specialised in consuming fish
    • Usually thought-about to be synonymous with Angaturama, which lived on the similar time and place. Additionally the fossils discovered on Angaturama appear to finish the Irritator fossil, in order that they might be the identical specimen
    • Angaturama was described in 1996, after Irritator, based mostly on a fossil discovered within the Santana formation. Later 60% of the skeleton was discovered, so a duplicate was made and placed on show on the Rio de Janiero Nationwide Museum. A number of paleontologists suppose Irritator and Angaturama are completely different, based mostly on Angaturama having a better, extra flattened head
    • Diane Scott absolutely cleaned the cranium, and a brand new paper was revealed in 2002 to additional describe Irritator
    • Had a slender cranium with an elongated snout (again of the cranium was deeper than initially thought)
    • Enamel just like Spinosaurus aegyptiacus, however arduous to match different elements due to lack of fossils
    • Additionally discovered it didn’t have a crest
    • In 2004 elements of a spinal column of a spinosaurid had been discovered within the Santana Formation, and they’re thought to belong to Irritator
    • It was estimated to be about 26 ft (8 m) lengthy, although Gregory Paul stated in 2010 it could solely have been 7.5 m lengthy
    • Could have had a sail, however that’s a guess since no fossil has been discovered
    • Enjoyable reality: Though it’s unlawful to export fossils from China, the Psittacosaurus, “SMF R 4970”, was taken out of China and bought on the black market a number of occasions earlier than being purchased by the Senckenberg museum in Germany. So in case you dwell close by it’s best to go quickly, in case it will get repatriated again to China. The Senckenberg museum might not have identified that the fossil was smuggled out once they purchased it because the legislation was once much less well-known. However in accordance with an article by Liston and You, issues had been clarified a bit in 2013. If you happen to’re questioning if a specimen was legally exported from China “the best option to examine is to search for the distinctive Ministry of Land and Assets registration quantity, with which your materials ought to have arrived. In case your materials has this quantity, then it has left the Individuals’s Republic of China legally. In case your Chinese language fossil materials doesn’t have this quantity, then it’s applicable to be involved as to only the way it got here to go away that nation.”

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    The Royal Tyrrell Museum. The Royal Tyrrell Museum is situated in southern Alberta, Canada. One of many prime paleontological analysis institutes on the earth, all the museum is devoted to the science of paleontology. It’s undoubtedly a should see for each dinosaur fanatic. Extra info will be discovered at