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I Know Dino Podcast Present Notes: Kentrosaurus (Episode 64)


    Episode 64 is all about Kentrosaurus, a stegosaur smaller than Stegosaurus and with shoulder spikes.

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    On this episode, we talk about:

    • The dinosaur of the day: Kentrosaurus
    • Title means “prickle lizard”
    • Shut relative of Stegosaurus
    • Described by Edwin Hennig in 1915
    • Fossils discovered within the Tendaguru Formation (no full skeletons discovered, however lots of of bones discovered on German expeditions to German East Africa from 1909 to 1912
    • First Kentrosaurus fossil present in 1909 (Werner Janensch stated in 1910 it was a kind of stegosaur)
    • Over 1200 bones discovered from 50 people (many destroyed throughout WWII); 350 specimens on the Museum of Pure Historical past in Berlin
    • Although a number of specimens discovered, they didn’t die a mass dying on the identical time, so that they don’t signify a single herd (so laborious to guess about their behaviors)
    • Kind species is Kentrosaurus aethiopicus
    • Species title aethiopicus comes from the provenance from Africa
    • Hennig didn’t designate a holoytpe in his unique description, however picked probably the most full partial skeleton for his monography in 1925 (which is now a part of the mounted skeleton in Berlin)
    • Hennig printed a monography in 1925, however by then just one tooth had been discovered (later extra tooth fragments discovered and a tooth-bearing bone from the decrease jaw); similar to Stegosaurus, however smaller
    • Controversy over the title (just like the ceratopsian Centrosaurus); in 1916 Hennig renamed it Kentrurosaurus (pointed tail saurian) and Franz Nopcsa from Hungary renamed the ceratopsian Doryphosaurus (lance bearing saurian); however the renaming wasn’t vital as a result of the spellings and pronunciations are totally different, so Kentrosaurus is legitimate (and Kentrurosaurus is a junior synonym)
    • In 1993, George Olshevsky categorized fossils of Stegosaurus longispinus (named by Charles Gilmore in 1914) as Kentrosaurus longispinus, however paleontologists didn’t settle for this, and it grew to become its personal genus, Natronsaurus (has longer tail spikes than Kentrosaurus and a barely totally different pelvis and vertebrae construction)
    • Kentrosaurus was just like however smaller than Stegosaurus
    • Grownup Kentrosaurus was on common about half the size of an grownup Stegosaurus
    • Mallison in 2011 described the distinction between Kentrosaurus and different dinosaurs within the Stegosauria group; included the neural spines within the tail being vertical in the midst of the tail and hook-shaped at the back of the tail
    • Had elongated spikes (one specimen had a bone core size of 731 mm)
    • Spikes and plates have been in all probability lined
    • Stegosaurus solely had one row of plates and two rows of spikes on the tail finish
    • Kentrosaurus had thinner spikes than Stegosaurus (extra more likely to bend)
    • Ragna Redelstorff stated in a 2013 research that primarily based on bone histology Kentrosaurus had the next development price than Stegosaurus (although it was smaller, and contradicts the concept bigger dinosaurs grew extra shortly than smaller dinosaurs)
    • Kentrosaurus had shoulder spikes, which have been initially regarded as on its hips (till Chinese language stegosaurs)
    • Related shoulder spikes on Chinese language stegosaurs Gigantspinosaurus and Huayangosaurus
    • Kentrosaurus lived within the Late Jurassic, in Tanzania
    • Lived in a subtropical to tropical space, with seasonal rains and dry intervals
    • Different dinosaurs included Dysalotosaurus, Giraffatitan, Barosaurus, Allosaurus, Ceratosaurus, Elaphrosaurus
    • Kentrosaurus was about 15 ft (4.5 m) lengthy, weighed one ton
    • Had hoof-like claws on toes
    • Small, elongated head
    • Small mind, dimension of a walnut
    • Had a great sense of odor
    • Scientists discovered sufficient Kentrosaurus mind cavities to assemble information on its intelligence and sense of odor
    • Most likely had two rows of small plats on its neck and again, and spikes on the hip and tail (longest ones have been on the tail)
    • Plates weren’t a lot safety, extra for show
    • Additionally had an extended backbone on every shoulder
    • Used its spikes for protection (had a muscular tail)
    • Greater than half its size is the tail
    • Due to its heart of mass, not a lot weight assist by entrance legs, which implies it had a decent turning radius
    • Heinrich Mallison created a digital skeleton mannequin of Kentrosaurus in 2005 to review its vary of movement (and located it had a versatile neck)
    • Mallison additionally made fashions of Kentrosaurus‘ tail
    • Tail had at the least 40 caudal vertebrae, which implies it was very cell (swing at 180 diploma arc, at doubtlessly as much as 31 mph (50 kph); speedy swings may have slashed by means of pores and skin or damaged bones, and direct blows with the tail spies would fracture bones (would have actually harm small and medium theropods and doubtlessly harm giant theropods)
    • “At this velocity,” Mallison wrote, “the spikes may penetrate deeply into tender tissues or between ribs and have been in a position to shatter bones.” He provides: “Penetrating impacts at 10 m/s created forces better than these enough to fracture a human cranium.” Ouch.
    • Primarily based on latest CAD (pc) fashions of stegosaurs, in all probability had higher posture than usually depicted (no horizontal neck or neck sloping down), however moderately with neck angled upwards and head held a bit greater than its again
    • Might shortly rotate across the hips, and preserve the tail pointed on the predator (although a quick predator may nonetheless get to the tail base, which wouldn’t have harm as a lot when it swung its tail, after which assault the unprotected neck and higher physique (however to kill a Kentrosaurus might have required searching in packs)
    • Had a versatile neck, and will look over its again
    • Might probably throw its head again to maintain attacker
    • If it was a herding animal, working along with tails would have saved them secure from predators
    • An early interpretation of how Kentrosaurus defended itself was to cost by means of attackers with its spines, just like trendy porcupines
    • When strolling, Kentrosaurus had an upright posture, however sprawled in protection
    • Could have sprawled when defending itself
    • Quick forelimbs and lengthy hindlimbs
    • Kentrosaurus confirmed sexual dimorphism (appears there have been extra females than males)
    • Kind varieties of thighbones, so one (feminine) had bigger, extra stout thighbones than the opposite
    • Females in all probability had the thicker thigh bones
    • Herbivore, principally swallowed meals in giant chunks
    • Beak that bit off plant materials
    • Thought of to be a low browser for meals (however may rear up)
    • On all fours, may eat meals as much as 5ft 7 in or 1.7m excessive, may additionally rear up on hindlegs to succeed in greater vegetation; due to its lengthy tail, it’s heart of mass was near its hind limbs, so it may doubtlessly assist itself in a get up place (tail would have both been absolutely lifted or used as a 3rd leg, although Bob Bakker stated he thinks the tail wasn’t stiff sufficient to be a 3rd leg); standing up, it may have reached meals as excessive as 11 ft or 3.3 m
    • Can see a composite skeletal mount within the Pure Historical past Museum in Berlin, Germany
    • The mount in Berlin comprised of a virtually full tail, hip, dorsal vertebrae and elements of limbs from one particular person (mount dismantled in 2006-7 and remounted with an improved pose. Braincase and backbone and different elements regarded as misplaced in WWII, however then have been later present in a drawer of a basement cabinet
      museum of the Institute for Geosciences of theEberhard-Karls-College Tübingen has composite mount, with about 50% unique bones
    • Belongs to the group Threophora (additionally referred to as Enoplosauria), a gaggle of dinosaurs with dermal armor (contains stegosaurs and ankylosaurs)
    • Stegosauridae is a household of thyreophoran dinosaurs
    • Consists of stegosaurs extra intently associated to Stegosaurus than Huayangosaurus
    • Lived into the late Cretaceous
    • Had rows or osteoderms alongside their neck, trunk, and tail (plates and spikes, used for show, thermoregulation, and protection)
    • Had entrance legs shorter than rear legs, (highly effective however sluggish)
    • Might shear small branches
    • Skulls are shallower than early stegosaurs
    • Two subfamilies: Dacentrurinae and Stegosaurinae
    • Stegosaurinae are bigger
    • Enjoyable Truth: According to the Nature article titled “Sauropod dinosaur osteoderms from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar” the most important recognized animals ever to have osteoderms have been titanosaurs. Particularly they describe a single osteoderm present in Madagascar concerning the dimension of an American soccer (with an estimated quantity of about 10 L) which is probably the most large osteoderm ever found.