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I Know Dino Podcast Present Notes: Polacanthus (Episode 248)


    Episode 248 is all about Polacanthus, an ankylosaur that was described within the 1800s, however nobody is bound who named it.

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    On this episode, we talk about:


    • After a long time of being categorized as Massospondylus, “gray cranium” has a brand new title, Ngwevu intloko supply
    • Mission Jurassic in North Wyoming may maintain over 100 dinosaurs in a single sq. mile supply
    • A gaggle of juvenile hadrosaurs was discovered at Pipestone Creek, close to the Philip J. Currie Museum supply
    • The Scottish authorities is engaged on higher defending the fossils on the Isle of Skye in Scotland supply
    • In India, a bunch of scientists are pushing for a invoice that can designate and safeguard fossil websites supply
    • In Romania, new dinosaur nests have been discovered, most certainly from a hadrosaur like Telmatosaurus supply
    • The Pure Historical past Museum in London has digitized their holotype of Mantellisaurus supply
    • The Central Museum of Mongolian Dinosaurs lately opened a brand new exhibition corridor, themed Paleozoic Period supply
    • Dinosaur Park in Laurel, Maryland has an open home this summer season, on September 7 supply
    • Trix the T.rex is again in Leiden, on the up to date Naturalis Biodiversity Heart within the Netherlands supply
    • A brand new mission referred to as “On the Path of Dinosaurs,” will convey the Dinosaur Tracks from the Australian Dampier Peninsula to life supply
    • youngsters visiting the North Carolina Museum of Pure Sciences usually attempt to assist the injured sauropod, giving it hugs and Band-Aids. supply
    • South Dakota rancher Kenny Brown lately retired and bequeathed his 1,330 acre ranch to the Faculty of Mines supply
    • PLOS One weblog has an inventory of occasions for Nationwide Fossil Day within the US (October 16) supply
    • On August 29, the US Postal Service is issuing 4 new T. rex stamps, with a holographs supply
    • Nickelodeon has a brand new animated collection popping out September 14, LEGO Jurassic World: Legend of Isla Nubar supply

    The dinosaur of the day: Polacanthus

    • Ankylosaur that lived within the Early Cretaceous in what’s now England (Higher Wessex Formation)
    • Quadrupedal ornithischian
    • Not well-known (particularly the cranium)
    • Estimated to be about 16 ft (5 m) lengthy
    • Gregory Paul estimated it to weigh 2 tonnes
    • Had comparatively lengthy hindlimbs
    • Physique had armor plates and spikes
    • Had a big pelvic or sacral defend (bone over the hips). The holotype has 4 rows of bigger osteoderms on the facet, with smaller ossicles
    • John Whitaker Hulke within the late 1800s urged the tail had two rows of osteoderms on both sides
    • Franz Nopcsa in 1905 thought the tail and entrance of the physique had two parallel rows of spikes, one on both sides
    • Wiliam T Blows in 1987 principally agreed with Nopcsa however stated there have been three spike sorts
    • Sort species: Polacanthus foxii
    • Present in 1865 on the Isle of Wight by Reverend William Fox
    • Genus means “many thorns” or “many prickles”
    • The genus title refers back to the spikes on its armor
    • The species title refers to Fox
    • Fox at first was going to have his pal Alfred Tennyson title the dinosaur. Tennyson urged naming it Euacanthus vectianus however this wasn’t accepted
    • Fox talked about the discover in a lecture to the British Affiliation, and let Richard Owen title it Polacanthus foxii
    • The Illustrated London Information printed an nameless article with Fox’s lecture however there’s no corresponding publication by Owen
    • Some folks assume that Thomas Huxley named the dinosaur, others assume it was Owen, Fox, or somebody nameless
    • Holotype consists of an incomplete skeleton (contains vertebrae, sacrum, a lot of the pelvis, a lot of the left hindleg, ribs, chevrons, ossified tendons, and spikes)
    • Early illustrations gave it a generic head (solely knew the again half)
    • John Whitaker Hulke printed the primary description of the dinosaur in 1881, and stated it had deteriorated over time (the armor had principally fallen aside). However then Fox died (identical yr), and his fossils have been acquired by the British Museum of Pure Historical past. Caleb Barlow reassembled Polacanthus, though Hulke thought it couldn’t be accomplished
    • Hulke redescribed Polacanthus in 1887, specializing in the armor
    • Then in 1905, Franz Nopcsa described Polacanthus and illustrated the spikes
    • Different attainable specimens included two present in 1843 by John Edward Lee
    • Extra have been referred, they usually embody elements of the armor or single bones
    • Wiliam T Blows exacavated a second partial skeleton (with elements of the cranium) in 1979. Elements of it had been eliminated since 1876
    • Many species have been named however just one species is taken into account to be legitimate now
    • Different species names embody Polacanthus becklesi (now thought-about to be a junior synonym), Polacanthus marshi (Blows claimed in 1987 that Hoplitosaurus was Polacanthus marshi, however this has now been rejected), Polacanthus rudgwickensis (named by Blows in 1996 aftering reviewing fossils present in 1985 considered Iguanodon, it’s about 30% longer than Polacanthus foxii however in 2015 Blows named it as a separate genus, Horshamosaurus)
    • Additionally, Polacanthus ponderosus (Nopcsa named in 1928 primarily based on a left scapula that Gideon Mantell had thought was Hylaeosaurus, in addition to a tibia and humerus from one other specimen, nevertheless it seems the tibia and humerus have been discovered on Wight, and are casts, whereas the scapula was from Bolney)
    • Walter Coombs renamed Polacanthus foxii to Hylaeosaurus foxi in 1971, however this has not been accepted
    • Some folks have thought Polacanthus was the identical as Hylaeosaurus armatus, however Blows rejected that in 1987 primarily based on age and anatomical variations

    Enjoyable Reality:
    There’s new proof that some theropods in Mongolia laid eggs in teams at nesting websites.