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I Know Dino Podcast: Therizinosaurus


    Episode 48 is all about Therizinosaurus, the inspiration for Indominus Rex in Jurassic World.

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    On this episode, we talk about:

    • The dinosaur of the day: Therizinosaurus
    • Identify means “scythe lizard”
    • Theropod that lived within the late Cretaceous
    • Just one species, Therizinosaurus cheloniformis
    • Fossils present in Mongolia, and first regarded as turtle-like (cheloniformis means “turtle-formed); only some bones discovered, together with massive hand claws
    • A joint Soviet-Mongolian fossil expedition discovered the primary Therizinosaurus bones in 1948, in Mongolia
    • Russian paleontologist Evgeny Maleev in 1954, who thought it was a turtle-like reptile that used its claws to get seaweed; the holotype solely has claws
    • Maleev thought it used its forelimbs for swimming and claws to “minimize aquatic vegetation”
    • Extra fossils have been discovered, which included extra claws and elements of forelimbs (Rinchen Barsbold described in 1976)
    • Altangerel Perle described one other specimen in 1982, which had hindlimbs
    • In 1970, Anatoly Konstantinovich Rozhdestvensky stated Therizinosaurus was a dinosaur, not a turtle
    • It was controversial about what sort of dinosaur Therizinosaurus was (some thought it was a carnosaur, others thought it had a killing claw like a deinonychosaur)
    • In 1970 Therizinosaurus categorised as some sort of theropod
    • In northern China, associated species have been discovered which helped paleontologists determine extra about Therizinosaurus
    • Recognized as a segnosaurid when Segnosaurus and Erlikosaurus was discovered (in Asia)
    • Segnosaurids are herbivorous theropods with lengthy arms, lengthy necks, and large bellies
    • The segnosaurid group identify ultimately modified to therizinosaur (extra on that later)
    • Fossils of Alxasaurus and Beipiaosaurus have been discovered, which have been decided to be in the identical group as Therizinosaurus, confirmed that Therizinosaurus most likely had a bird-like pelvis, and gave particulars concerning the ft and skulls. Discovered that therizinosaurs have been extra superior, herbivorous maniraptoran theropods
    • Therizinosaurids are theropods (however herbivores)
    • Theropods normally solely used three toes when standing and strolling, however therizinosaurs used 4 toes
    • Now scientists base Therizinosaurus appears to be like on associated therizinosaurids. It most likely had a small cranium, lengthy neck, and a large physique. Most likely bipedal
    • Most likely had lengthy forelimbs (8 ft or 2.5 m and even as much as 11.5 ft or 3.5 m)
    • Gregory S Paul estimated in 2010 that the biggest Therizinosaurus would have been 33 ft (10 m) lengthy and weighed 5 tons (based mostly on largest recognized therizinosaurs and maniraptorans)
    • Intently associated to Velociraptor, based mostly on form of wrist and hip bones
    • Seems so much like ornithomimid Deinocheirus (due to claws)
    • Therizinosaurus had massive claws, bigger than most therizinosaurs, and have been most likely 3.3 ft (about 1 m) lengthy; they’ve the longest claws of any recognized animal
    • Claws have been straight, however tapered into a degree
    • Claws could have been used for show (present reproductive maturity)
    • Males could have fought one another with claws (like how ceratopsians battled with horns)
    • Claws could have additionally been a deterrent for predator Tarbosaurus bataar (trying fearsome)
    • Different dinosaurs that lived round Therizinosaurus included Avimimus, Conchoraptor, Alioramus (tyrannosaur) and Nemegtosaurus (titanosaur)
    • Presumably used its massive claws to drag down tree branches
    • Claws could have been used to drag down vegetation (during which case, would have been a choosy eater)
    • Therizinosaurus was most likely an herbivore, based mostly on different therizinosaurs, but it surely’s unclear what it ate
    • No Therizinosaurus cranium discovered, however most of its relations had small, leaf-shaped tooth and have been herbivores
    • Some scientists suppose it ate bugs, (used claws to tear into termite nests)
    • Some therizinosaurs could have been omnivores
    • Some therizinosaurs had feathers, similar to Beipiaosaurus, from China
    • Unclear if Therizinosaurus had feathers (a lot bigger than Beipiaosaurus)
    • In 2013, a nest of therizinosaur eggs have been discovered (17 clutches within the Gobi Desert), which can present they have been considerably social
    • The eggs discovered had no embryos, which can imply all of them hatched and the infants left with their dad and mom
    • The adults of the eggs have been estimated to weigh 1100lb or 500 kg
    • Can see a life-sized Therizinosaurus statue in Poland, together with Allosaurus, Diplodocus, Iguanodon, and extra, in Jurapark
    • Can see Therizinosaurus and Tarbosaurus battling in Chased by Dinosaurs, a documentary from 2002
    • Can even see Therizinosaurus in BBC’s Strolling With Dinosaurs: Inside Their World
    • Therizinosaurus shall be in a future replace of ARK Survival Advanced (sport); it will likely be massive and sluggish however tamed and educated for gamers to experience and use for protection
    • Indominus Rex was first impressed by how Therizinosaurus regarded, in keeping with Jack Horner in an interview with Yahoo Motion pictures (on account of massive, greedy arms)
    • Therizinosauridae means “reaper lizards”
    • They’re superior theropods (herbivores and omnivores)
    • Lived within the Cretaceous
    • Present in Mongolia, China, and U.S.
    • Therizinosaurs had lengthy necks, broad torsos, and walked on 4 toes in the same method to basal sauropodomorphs
    • They’d distinctive hip bones that pointed backwards, and made paleontologists initially suppose they have been just like the “bird-hipped” ornithischians
    • Additionally they have massive claws on their arms, and will attain far ahead with their forelimbs (farther than different theropods), which makes scientists suppose they have been largely herbivores
    • They could have used their claws to grasph at branches, just like a sloth
    • Beipiaosaurus pores and skin impressions present primitive down-like feathers, just like Sinosauropteryx (compsognathid)
    • Some theroziniosaurs have been comparatively small, like Beipiaosaurus (7.3 ft or 2.2 m lengthy), however others have been massive (Therizinosaurus was the biggest)
    • As a result of therizinosaurus was such an incomplete discover, and had an entire bunch of unusual options that have been akin to theropods, prosauropods and ornithischians, scientists at first grouped therizinosaurs as segnosaurs. Additionally they thought they have been semi-quadrupedal as a result of prosauropods have been semi-quadrupedal. Nevertheless, that is inconceivable due to their bird-like wrists.
    • Within the mid Nineties, scientists discovered Alxasaurus, which was extra like a typical theropod. Alxasaurus and Therizinosaurus have been a part of the segnosaur group, which made extra scientists settle for that these dinosaurs have been herbivorous theropods, descended from carnivorous theropods
    • Then extra primitive dinosaurs in the identical group have been discovered, together with Beipiaosaurus in 1999 and Falcarius in 2005 (which was described as a lacking hyperlink between carnivorous maniraptoran theropods and herbivorous therizinosaurs
    • Therizinosaurs had skulls just like sauropods and tooth and jaws that made them herbivores
    • The group Segnosauria was named an infraorder of theropoda in 1980. However now they’re thought of a specialised group inside theropoda, and a synonym of Therizinosauridea (Therizinosaur named first, so the group took the brand new identify as soon as scientists realized it was a part of the identical group, and Segnosaurs grew to become synonymous with Therizinosaurs)
    • In 1954, Maleev named the superfamily Therizinosauroidea, but it surely solely had Therizinosaurus on the time. Then scientists discovered it was a complicated segnosaur, and renamed the group (partly as a result of Therizinosauroidea was older, partly as a result of Segnosauria was related to the concept they have been associated to prosauropods, which was discredited)
    • Not a lot is understood about therizinosaur conduct
    • CT scans in 2012 of the therizinosaur Erlikosaurus confirmed it had a big mind, good stability, and good sense of listening to and odor, which might have helped keep away from predators, discover meals, and have interaction in social conduct
    • Enjoyable reality: Noise-making tools of most animals don’t fossilize, and out of doors of dinosaurs like Parasaurolophus that appeared to make use of a resonant chamber we don’t know what they appeared like. Based on the Tate Geological Museum from Casper Faculty: “Tyrannosaurus rex may need hissed like a snake, chirped like a fowl, or bellowed like an alligator in the course of the mating season or been utterly silent like many trendy reptiles.”