What sorts of hawks can you discover in the USA?
After doing a little analysis, I used to be amazed in any respect the totally different hawk species in the USA! These birds of prey are available in all sizes and shapes, reside in all types of habitats, and even eat broadly totally different meals, from bugs to reptiles to mammals.
Under are the 17 sorts of hawks that reside in the USA!
#1. Purple-tailed Hawk
This species is probably the most prevalent hawk in the USA and the one which persons are most conversant in.
These giant raptors are sometimes seen on lengthy drives within the countryside, hovering within the sky or perched on a fence put up. The plumage shade of Purple-tailed Hawks may be something from almost white to nearly black, so coloration shouldn’t be a dependable indicator. One of the simplest ways to establish them is by searching for their attribute pink tail. 🙂
Purple-tailed Hawk Vary Map
In most locations in the USA, you’ll observe extra Purple-tailed Hawks within the winter than the summer time. It is because the birds that spend their summers up north come down within the winter, becoming a member of the year-round residents.
These hawks are extremely adaptable, and there’s no actual description of their most well-liked habitats as a result of they appear to be snug in every single place. I’ve seen Purple-tailed Hawks nearly in every single place, from the deep backcountry in Yellowstone Nationwide Park to city cities to my very own suburban yard! Decide a habitat, corresponding to pastures, parks, deserts, roadsides, rainforests, woodlands, fields, or scrublands, and also you’ll discover them thriving.
Purple-tailed Hawks have spectacular calls which are simply recognized.
In actual fact, persons are so enamored with their screams, it’s widespread for administrators to make use of the sounds of a Purple-tailed Hawk to exchange Bald Eagles that seem in motion pictures. In case you may have by no means heard one, Bald Eagles don’t make sounds that reside as much as their look (placing it properly!)
These giant hawks rely totally on mammals to eat, in order that they shouldn’t hassle any birds that come to your feeders. Their most typical victims embrace mice, voles, rats, floor squirrels, and rabbits. However you might also see them consuming snakes, carrion, or bigger birds (starlings, pheasants, blackbirds).
Mating for all times, Purple-tailed Hawks want nesting within the tallest timber that supply the perfect view of the encircling territory. In additional city environments, these raptors will use window ledges or choose the very best spot on a billboard. They may typically reuse nests from earlier years, but when a brand new one is required, they will assemble it in lower than every week.
Size: 18-26 inches / 45-65 cm
Weight: 1.5-3.5 lbs. / 700-1600 gm
Wingspan: 43-55 inches/ 110-140 cm
Scientific Identify: Buteo jamaicensis
#2. Sharp-shinned Hawk
Sharp-shinned Hawks are the smallest hawks in the USA, and they’re extremely athletic and acrobatic. It’s widespread to see these raptors zipping by way of the woods or by your hen feeders in a blur of movement!
To establish these birds, search for bars of orange on their higher chest that fades in the direction of the stomach and blue-gray again and wings. When they’re flying, their wings are comparatively brief and rounded, however with an extended tail. Females are significantly larger than males.
Sharp-shinned Hawk Vary Map
Sharped-shinned Hawks are widespread in forested areas in the USA. They’re most frequently seen round hen feeders, looking and preying on the songbirds that come to go to. These raptors are ambush predators, sitting patiently after which dashing out from cowl at excessive velocity to chase birds, which make up 90% of their weight loss program.
In my yard, I see them catching Mourning Doves probably the most.
These hawks are extremely much like the Cooper’s Hawk, and these two species have confused birders for years (together with me!). Among the finest methods to inform them aside is by measurement. Sharp-shinned’s are considerably smaller than Cooper’s, with the previous being about 6 inches (15 cm) shorter and half the load than the latter (on common).
Cooper’s vs Sharp-shinned: The best way to establish!
Sadly, these two birds are not often perched subsequent to one another in a tree, so it’s nearly unattainable to evaluate their precise sizes. I’ve misidentified these hawks extra occasions than I can depend. My finest recommendation is to observe the above video, examine subject guides, and discover a extra skilled hen watcher who might help you learn to inform them aside!
One solution to confirm you may have seen a Sharp-shinned Hawk is to hear for his or her sounds. People give a high-pitched shrill “kik-kik-kik” which is usually repeated a number of occasions. Cooper’s Hawks have a deeper name that sounds extra like “cak-cak-cak.” With a bit of apply (and persistence!) I’m positive you may be taught the distinction.
Size: 9-13.5 inches / 23-37 cm
Weight: 3-8 oz / 82-220 gm
Wingspan: 16.5-26.5 inches / 42-68 cm
Scientific Identify: Accipiter striatus
#3. Cooper’s Hawk
Cooper’s Hawks are generally present in the USA in woods or on the sting of fields. These raptors are recognized for his or her flying agility. I see them typically at my home in high-speed chases by way of the cover going after their prey.
Cooper’s Hawk Vary Map
Many individuals don’t need Cooper’s Hawks round.
Due to their unbelievable flying talents, these raptors primarily eat songbirds and are widespread to see in backyards round hen feeders. At my feeding station, I’ve noticed these hawks preying on Purple-winged Blackbirds, European Starlings, and Mourning Doves.
For those who don’t get pleasure from watching the “circle of life” in your yard, it’s comparatively straightforward to get these birds of prey to maneuver on to different feeding grounds. Strive taking your feeders down for just a few weeks to pressure them to search for meals elsewhere, however don’t be shocked if they arrive again as quickly as you begin feeding birds once more!
Visually, a Cooper’s Hawk seems to be extremely much like the Sharp-shinned Hawk, as described above. Their steely blue-gray look is sort of equivalent to the Sharp-shinned hawk, proper all the way down to the little black cap that each put on and the rufous coloured chest.
The BEST solution to inform these hawks aside is to have a look at the scale distinction. Cooper’s are bigger than Sharp-shinneds. But when they’re airborne, good luck determining which one you’re observing!
The most typical sound a Cooper’s Hawk emits is an alarm name that appears like “kuck, kuck, kuck” or “cak-cak-cak.” Pay attention for a bassier sound than the higher-pitched Sharp-shinned Hawk. PRESS PLAY BELOW!
In distinction to many different birds, males are often answerable for constructing the nest. The feminine appears to simply sit again, chill out, and make minor changes when the male does one thing she doesn’t like. 🙂
Size: 13½-20 inches / 35-50 cm
Weight: 8-24 oz / 220-680 gm
Wingspan: 24½-35½ inches / 62-90 cm
Scientific Identify: Accipiter cooperii
#4. Northern Goshawk
Northern Goshawks are secretive birds which are exhausting to see, as these birds of prey want residing in giant forests away from civilization. Many individuals mistakenly assume they’ve seen one of their yard when it was only a Cooper’s Hawk, which seems to be sort of comparable.
A dark-colored head that’s often paired with deep pink eyes makes the Northern Goshawk exhausting to mistake. The underbody is commonly a bluish-white to mild grey with barring. The higher physique is blue-gray and even brown with sure morphs.
Northern Goshawk Vary Map
Northern Goshawks are widespread in the USA however are exhausting to see, particularly within the suburbs and metropolis. Some particular person birds are brief time period migrants throughout colder months, heading south till satisfactory meals may be discovered. Different birds keep in the identical place all 12 months.
These raptors are shut relations to each Cooper’s and Sharp-shinned Hawks, besides they’re bigger and fiercer. In actual fact, for those who get too near a nest, it’s possible that these defensive birds will assault you!
Pay attention for a harsh “ca-ca-ca” sound. Because it calls, they flip their head back and forth slowly, which provides the vocal impact of a ventriloquist.
Opportunistic hunters, Northern Goshawks eat all kinds of meals. The checklist contains bugs, mammals, birds, and reptiles.
Size: 16-27 inches / 41-69 cm
Weight: 22-50 oz / 630-1400 gm
Wingspan: 35-50 inches / 89-127 cm
Scientific Identify: Accipiter gentilis
#5. Purple-shouldered Hawk
Distinctly marked, Purple-shouldered Hawks have a barred rufous chest, principally white underwings, a strongly banded tail, and naturally, pink shoulders which are seen when perched.
Purple-shouldered Hawk Vary Map
Whereas Purple-tailed Hawks personal giant open areas, Purple-shouldered Hawks are primarily forest dwellers. Their favourite locations are woods with an open higher cover since this additional house permits them to hunt extra effectively. These raptors are additionally widespread in suburban areas the place homes have been combined into woodlands. I see Purple-shouldered Hawks ceaselessly, particularly in winter, looking in my yard for squirrels.
Talking of meals, these hawks primarily eat small mammals however will feast on snakes, lizards, and amphibians when obtainable.
Purple-shouldered Hawk looking in my yard!
When looking, these raptors drop onto their prey straight from overhead, making their looking type distinctive. You may see this habits completely above, as a Purple-shouldered Hawk tries to catch a squirrel in my yard! (Don’t fear, the hawk is unsuccessful.)
It’s widespread to listen to a Purple-shouldered Hawk earlier than you see one. Pay attention for a loud name that appears like “kee-ahh,” which is commonly repeated a number of occasions.
Size: 15-19 inches / 38-48 cm
Weight: 1.1-1.9 lbs. / 500-860 gm
Wingspan: 38-42 inches / 96-107 cm
Scientific Identify: Buteo lineatus
#6. Broad-winged Hawk
The our bodies of those small hawks are brief and stocky, which makes them completely tailored to life within the forest. Whereas Broad-winged Hawks reside in the USA and are pretty widespread, they don’t seem to be typically seen as a result of they like spending their time within the deep woods away from people.
Broad-winged Hawk Vary Map
Whereas these birds spend their summers right here in the USA, they fly south for the winters to Central America and South America. Broad-winged Hawks are most likely finest recognized for his or her epic migrations every fall. It’s estimated that the common hen travels over 4,000 miles whole, and that’s simply ONE WAY, and so they have to finish this journey twice per 12 months.
These long-distance flyers typically journey south collectively, hovering on air currents, by the hundreds! Getting the possibility to observe a “kettle” of Broad Winged Hawks is genuinely awe-inspiring, as you may see within the video above!
Broad-winged Hawks are one other perch and pounce species. They sit excessive up on tree limbs to see the world surrounding them, ready patiently to swoop all the way down to seize a small mammal, frog, or toad. It’s uncommon for these raptors to hunt whereas flying.
These hawks give a high-pitched whistle, sometimes lasting round 2-4 seconds. The “pe-teeeee” sound has a brief first word and an extended second one.
Size: 13.5-17.5 inches / 34-44 cm
Weight: 16 oz / 450 gm
Wingspan: 33 inches / 84 cm
Scientific Identify: Buteo platypterus
#7. Ferruginous Hawk
Ferruginous Hawks are lovely raptors that reside within the open deserts and prairies of the West. The biggest of the North American hawks have lengthy broad wings and a large grey, rusty, or white tail.
These hawks have two shade kinds you could observe.
- The mild morph birds have a rusty brown again and pale underparts.
- The darkish morph people are darkish brown and chestnut-colored on each their again, chest, and stomach. Darkish morph birds are a lot rarer to see than mild ones.
Ferruginous Hawk Vary Map
Considerably social, Ferruginous Hawks might roost in teams throughout winter, which might include between 6-12 people. Mated pairs appear to be principally monogamous and are extremely adaptable nesters. For instance, these hawks will use timber, rock outcrops, ledges, haystacks, nest platforms, energy poles, numerous different human-made buildings, and the bottom for nests.
These raptors have a reasonably restricted weight loss program and rely principally upon small mammals for meals. Apparently, they’ve a number of looking methods they deploy. My favourite being their strategy of working or hopping on the bottom after their prey!
Their alarm name appears like “kree-a” or “kaah,” and is usually given when defending territory or frightened. Some folks assume it sounds much like a gull.
Size: 20-27 inches / 51-69 cm
Weight: 2-5 lbs. / 900-2270 gm
Wingspan: 47-60 inches / 1.2-1.5 meters
Scientific Identify: Buteo regalis
#8. Harris’s Hawk
Harris’s Hawks are lovely birds that may be discovered within the southwest United States. What’s distinctive about these hawks is they’re extremely social birds and are sometimes discovered collectively in teams with advanced social hierarchies.
Teams of Harris’s Hawks will typically hunt along with refined cooperative looking methods. Apparently, as soon as a kill is made, particular person birds feed so as in keeping with their stage of dominance, much like a pack of wolves.
When they don’t seem to be looking collectively, particular person birds will eat lizards, floor squirrels, birds, and rodents.
Harris’s Hawk Vary Map
Harris Hawks don’t migrate.
They “personal” a territory and stick round all 12 months. You’ll almost certainly discover them in desert lowlands with a number of excessive perches, corresponding to timber, energy poles, or boulders. Since they reside in dry environments, having a constant water supply close by is a should.
These hawks could make an angry-sounding name that’s given when shocked or a menace is close to.
Size: 18-24 inches / 46-59 cm
Weight: 1.5-2.5 lbs. / 680-1130 gm
Wingspan: 36-48 inches / 91-122 cm
Scientific Identify: Parabuteo unicinctus
#9. Swainson’s Hawk
Swainson’s Hawks are a raptor of the west and might typically be noticed hovering or perched on fence posts, phone poles, or timber in open areas.
These hawks arrive every April in the USA and spend their summers breeding and elevating their younger right here. In direction of the tip of August or starting of September, they start a LONG distance journey to Argentina! For those who’re conserving rating, that’s round 6,000 miles and takes as much as two months. And bear in mind, they make this journey twice per 12 months.
Swainson’s Hawk Vary Map
As they’re migrating, Swainson’s Hawks typically type giant “kettles,” the place they be part of with different species corresponding to Broad-winged Hawks and Turkey Vultures. In sure spots the place pure funnels happen, it’s attainable to see THOUSANDS of raptors hovering collectively without delay, which resembles an precise river of birds.
It appears some birds get misplaced throughout migration!
Yearly, small populations of Swainson’s Hawks can’t get across the Gulf of Mexico and spend their winters in Florida and the Texas coast. Within the reverse hemisphere, it’s widespread for some birds to remain for a complete 12 months within the tropics or find yourself in random components of South America, removed from Argentina.
The decision of the Swainson’s Hawk is a harsh alarm name that appears like “kreeeeer,” which frequently lasts 2-3 seconds.
Size: 18-22 inches / 46-56 cm
Weight: 24-48 oz / 680-1360 gm
Wingspan: 46-54 inches / 117-137 cm
Scientific Identify: Buteo swainsoni
#10. Tough Legged Hawk
Tough-legged Hawks, that are additionally known as Tough-legged Buzzards and Tough-legged Falcons, spend their summers residing and breeding on the Arctic tundra. You may solely see these giant hawks within the continental United States throughout winter after they migrate south.
Tough-legged Hawk Vary Map
Search for these chunky, giant raptors in open areas. They’ve a novel looking type the place they hover whereas dealing with the wind searching for meals. In actual fact, they’re one of many few birds of prey that really hovers in place.
Not like most hawks, this species has feathers all the way in which all the way down to their ft, which helps maintain them heat within the chilly environments they selected to reside.
These raptors are sometimes silent, besides they make a mewing sound close to the nest. (Pay attention above!)
When Tough-legged Hawks reside within the Arctic, they primarily eat lemmings, that are in plentiful provide. When within the south, they eat different small rodents obtainable, corresponding to mice, voles, and shrews.
Size: 18.5-23.5 inches / 46-59 cm
Weight: 25-49 oz / 715-1400 gm
Wingspan: 52-54 inches / 132-138 cm
Scientific Identify: Buteo lagopus
#11. Grey Hawk
The Grey Hawk is tough to see in the USA, because it’s a small tropical hawk that principally lives in Mexico and Central America.
Grey Hawk Vary Map
Grey Hawks love consuming lizards, and it doesn’t matter a lot which species, as they eat nearly all of them. Southern Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas have many lizards for them to dine upon, which is why they enterprise north into the USA within the first place.
Even when they’re round, Grey Hawks are exhausting to identify, as they sit patiently within the cover searching for meals. One of the simplest ways to seek out them is by listening for his or her calls. Essentially the most distinctive noise is a 3-note whistle (“kah-lee-oh”) used to search for mates and outline territories.
Size: 16-24 inches / 40-61 cm
Weight: 14-17 oz / 395-480 gm
Wingspan: 34-37 inches / 87-93 cm
Scientific Identify: Buteo plagiatus
#12. Quick-tailed Hawk
Quick-tailed Hawks are principally tropical birds that reside all through components of Central and South America. In the USA, they’re primarily present in Florida, however they’re more and more displaying up within the southwest close to the Mexico-Arizona border.
Quick-tailed Hawk Vary Map
However the inhabitants of Quick-tailed Hawks in Florida is comparatively small and thought solely to be round 500 people scattered round this massive state. As well as, these small hawks keep out of the eyesight of most individuals by not often perching out within the open.
Distinctive for Buteo hawks, these raptors primarily eat birds, corresponding to warblers, red-winged blackbirds, grackles, and meadowlarks. They soar very excessive and plummet to both take birds on the wing, these perched in tall timber, or sitting in shrubs. Surprisingly they solely have a couple of 10% success fee whereas looking.
Size: 15.5-17.5 inches / 39-44 cm
Weight: 14-18 oz / 390-520 gm
Wingspan: 33-41 inches / 83-103 cm
Scientific Identify: Buteo brachyurus
#13. Zone-tailed Hawk
These lovely, smooth, black hawks are discovered within the southwestern United States, the place they breed and lift their younger. Through the winter months, they migrate to southern Mexico and Central America.
Zone-tailed Hawks look extremely much like Turkey Vultures.
Even their flying kinds are the identical, as each species soar with their wings barely raised and rock forwards and backwards. It appears that evidently this mimicry helps these hawks hunt since they will mix into a gaggle of Turkey Vultures and sneak up on their prey. The animal they’re pursuing doesn’t notice the deception till it’s too late!
Zone-tailed Hawk Vary Map
These hawks can solely be present in just a few states. However because the Nineteen Nineties, they’ve slowly been rising their vary northwards.
Size: 18-22 inches / 45-56 cm
Weight: 21.5-33 oz / 610-940 gm
Wingspan: 30-34 inches / 75-86½ cm
Scientific Identify: Buteo albonotatus
#14. Widespread Black Hawk
The whole physique of this hawk is coal coloured aside from a small white patch behind the invoice and white bands on the tail. Their shiny orange-yellow invoice and legs additionally stand out towards their black our bodies.
Widespread Black Hawk Vary Map
Widespread Black Hawks have a restricted vary in the USA and might solely be present in components of Arizona, Utah, Nevada, California, New Mexico, and Texas. Most of those raptors reside farther south into Mexico and Central America.
For those who like crab legs, then you may have one thing in widespread with this raptor. Widespread Black Hawks love consuming crabs when obtainable! Additionally they feed on frogs, snakes, fish, younger birds, crayfish, eggs, and bugs. It’s possible you’ll even spot them wading into shallow water to catch their meals.
Size: 17-21 inches / 43-53 cm
Weight: 22-46 oz / 630-1300 gm
Wingspan: 50 inches / 127 cm
Scientific Identify: Buteogallus anthracinus
#15. White-tailed Hawk
For my part, these giant hawks are fairly lovely. They’re predominantly a slate gray shade with rusty shoulders, and about the identical measurement as a Purple-tailed Hawk. Because the identify suggests, White-tailed Hawks have an excellent white tail that’s simply noticed whereas flying. Additionally, search for a black band on the very finish.
White-tailed Hawk Vary Map
White-tailed Hawks are widespread in southern Texas, residing in open areas corresponding to prairies, grasslands, and pastures.
These hawks have an uncommon behavior of putting a single lengthy stick on their nest. Nobody is aware of why they do that or what function it serves!
These raptors primarily eat mammals, and curiously, some songbird species have figured this out and use White-tailed Hawks as safety. Small birds appear to know that they gained’t be eaten for lunch, and rely on the White-tailed Hawk to scare away different predators that do hunt them.
For instance, Northern Mockingbirds are so assured on this technique they often nest within the SAME bush as these giant birds of prey.
Whereas out within the subject, hear for a high-pitched whine that lasts just a few notes, following by a collection of repeated “ke” noises.
Size: 17-24 inches / 44-60 cm
Weight: 31-43 oz / 880-1235 gm
Wingspan: 46½-56 inches / 118-143 cm
Scientific Identify: Geranoaetus albicaudatus
The very first thing it’s essential learn about Ospreys is they’re NOT hawks! They aren’t eagles both and, scientifically talking, have been given their very own Household (Pandionidae) and Genus (Pandion), separate from all different birds of prey.
So, why embrace them on an inventory of widespread hawks in the USA?
Despite the fact that Ospreys are usually not hawks, they actually look much like one. Many individuals assume they’re taking a look at some species of hawk after they first observe an Osprey. These raptors have additionally been given nicknames, corresponding to Sea Hawk, River Hawk, and Fish Hawk, which trace on the affiliation between an Osprey and hawk.
Osprey Vary Map
While you consider an Osprey, you must consider fish, as a result of that’s what these birds eat 99% of the time. Even an Osprey’s talons are completely tailored for catching fish. For those who take a detailed look, you will note they’re extraordinarily curved and even intersect when absolutely closed, which makes them completely designed for holding onto slippery fish!
Much more attention-grabbing, their outer toe is reversible, which permits them to rotate the toe to allow them to have two in entrance, and two in again. Solely Ospreys and owls have this distinctive capability, which permits them to be extra environment friendly hunters.
And these guys don’t simply skim the floor and seize their prey close to the highest like an eagle. Ospreys hit the water HARD and plunge proper in to guarantee themselves of a catch. Amazingly, they will then take off whereas submerged and with a fish of their talons!
Due to their specialised weight loss program, you’ll nearly at all times discover Ospreys residing, breeding, and elevating their younger round our bodies of water. Mating for all times, it’s widespread for them to make use of human-made nesting platforms. For those who reside close to a big physique of water, I like to recommend putting in one to see for those who can appeal to a nesting pair!
Pay attention for Ospreys subsequent time you’re round a big physique of water. Their alarm name is a collection of brief high-pitched whistles that descend in pitch. The noise has been in comparison with a teapot taken off a range.
Size: 20-25.5 inches / 50-65 cm
Weight: 3-4.4 lb. / 1.4-2 kg
Wingspan: 59-71 inches / 150-180 cm
Scientific Identify: Pandion haliaetus
#17. Northern Harrier
Northern Harriers are one of the crucial distinctive hawks you’ll discover within the USA!
First, most hawks depend on their unbelievable eyesight to seek out and seize prey. However Northern Harriers additionally use their listening to to seek out meals, which is similar to owls. Even their disc-shaped face resembles an owl. 🙂
The most effective locations to discover a Northern Harrier are open grasslands, fields, or marshes. Search for a slim, long-tailed raptor that flies low and has a white rump. Watch an instance under!
Which hawks have you ever seen earlier than in the USA?
Depart a remark under!
*For every hawk listed under, it is possible for you to to view vary maps, which present the place every species lives. The paintings was generously shared with permission from The Birds of The World, revealed by the Cornell Lab of Ornithology. I exploit their website OFTEN to be taught new details about birds!*