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The Weedkiller Dicamba Is Poisoning Wildlife Habitat. Will the EPA Lastly Act?


    Noon, mid-June, mercury within the mid-90s. On the Arkansas Northeastern Faculty campus in Blytheville, Dan Scheiman friends by means of binoculars at a giant oak. Robins and cardinals flit close by, but it surely’s not a fowl that’s caught his eye. One thing is incorrect with the tree.

    He marches over for a better look. The leaves are curling inward, an abnormality referred to as cupping. “Prime to backside,” he observes, circling the trunk. “Throughout.” Scheiman, vegetation for birds program supervisor for Audubon Delta, Audubon’s regional workplace, can’t make sure of the perpetrator with out sending a pattern to a lab. However he has little doubt: Cupping is a basic signal of publicity to the herbicide dicamba.

    Although used for many years to fight weeds on farms and lawns, dicamba took off six years in the past with the introduction of crops genetically engineered to tolerate being sprayed with the chemical whereas surrounding weeds die. The EPA figures roughly two-thirds of U.S. soybeans and three-quarters of cotton by acreage are dicamba-tolerant.

    Bother is, dicamba received’t keep put. Particles of any weedkiller can drift on the wind, however dicamba travels from its goal with out a lot as a breeze. When temperatures are excessive sufficient—the precise threshold is unsure—it evaporates, rises, and roams ghostlike throughout the panorama. It may develop into airborne days after it’s sprayed and drift for miles. Whereas publicity to the vapor hasn’t been confirmed to considerably sicken people or birds, it injures or kills broadleaf vegetation that folks and wildlife rely on, from soybeans to strawberries to sweetgum.

    Many farmers, scientists, and advocates say dicamba’s harm to crops, ecosystems, and rural communities is among the many worst issues ever to befall American agriculture. Growers who depend on the weedkiller, in the meantime, say they want it to guard their yields from cussed nemeses now not fazed by glyphosate, one other herbicide. No place has seen extra battle than the Arkansas Delta—a part of the fertile plain flanking the Mississippi River—with its abundance of soybeans and cotton, broiling summers, and frequent temperature inversions that droop dicamba vapor within the air. The chemical even had a component in a 2016 homicide there: One farmer was convicted of taking pictures and killing one other who blamed him for damaging his soybeans.

    When signs appeared throughout the area, Scheiman grew involved concerning the affect on birds. In 2019 he launched a neighborhood science challenge to doc harm in public locations, hoping to persuade state regulators to crack down. On this June day Scheiman finds most of the identical species trying simply as sick as earlier than: gnarled mulberry at a wildlife refuge and Essential Hen Space; a maple, its leaf factors twisted like arthritic fingers, casting weaker shade on the headstones at close by Dogwood Cemetery.

    However as we speak he’s surveying his previous haunts out of curiosity. He scrapped the monitoring program final 12 months when it grew to become apparent his findings wouldn’t persuade the physique that units Arkansas’s pesticide guidelines: “There’s no use in me making use of science and advocacy anymore, as a result of they’re not going to pay attention.” Within the battle over dicamba right here, he says, chemical producers and their supporters have received. “The federal stage is the place change has to come back from.”

    Many environmentalists and farmers are fed up with the EPA for failing to cease the continued destruction. In components of the nation dicamba is inescapable in summer season; scientists discovered it within the air on 32 of 39 days they sampled at a College of Arkansas analysis station. Fields and forests are stewing within the low-dose poison summer season after summer season. “What’s been taking place these previous few years is that this gigantic, uncontrolled experiment,” Scheiman says. If we don’t name it off quickly, he and others worry, we might study too late that the outcomes are catastrophic.


    o farmers, weeds are landbound leeches bleeding them of money and time. “No different single function of farming requires such common and unceasing consideration,” lamented a 1918 authorities publication. That was a couple of many years earlier than chemical substances largely changed cultivation and hand instruments for weed management, however weeds proceed to plague growers as we speak. “Weeds are the primary pest in agriculture and the primary enter that we spend cash on, aside from fertilizer,” says Kevin Bradley, a College of Missouri weed scientist.

    A watershed second within the warfare on weeds got here in 1996, when agrochemical big Monsanto launched Roundup Prepared seeds, genetically engineered to resist its glyphosate-based herbicide. Amazed by its efficacy, some growers offered their tilling gear and went all-in on Roundup. A decade later, some 90 p.c of U.S. soybean acres had been glyphosate-tolerant. Regardless of Monsanto’s assurances that weeds wouldn’t evolve resistance to this chemical, inside two years farmers discovered inflexible ryegrass that refused to die. At present no less than 56 weed species are glyphosate-resistant. It’s a textbook instance of the herbicide treadmill, Bradley says: “We use one factor an excessive amount of and get resistance to it and transfer on to the following.”

    On this case, dicamba got here subsequent. Farmers have used the weedkiller, which mimics a progress hormone to drive plant demise, since 1967; for many years they primarily sprayed fields earlier than spring planting, since dicamba kills cotton and soybeans. (It’s additionally used on a small scale to handle invasive species for ecological restoration.) Then, starting in late 2015, Monsanto rolled out seeds engineered to tolerate dicamba.

    However the EPA allowed Monsanto to place the horse earlier than the cart, allowing farmers to purchase Xtend model seeds earlier than it accepted new formulations for spraying “excessive” of crops after they emerged. In 2016 some growers protected their investments by illegally spraying older, extra risky dicamba merchandise over their now-tolerant crops. That summer season regulators obtained reviews of crop harm on hundreds of acres in a number of states.

    Later, amid a Missouri peach grower’s profitable lawsuit, courtroom paperwork revealed that Monsanto not solely anticipated the devastation, it additionally leveraged it as a gross sales pitch, telling farmers to plant Xtend seeds to guard their crops from dicamba drift. In 2020 a jury discovered the corporate and its collaborator, BASF, had been negligent and engaged in a civil conspiracy; the 2 sides are nonetheless battling over financial damages. That very same 12 months Bayer, which acquired Monsanto in 2018, agreed to pay $300 million to settle soybean growers’ claims. Bayer now faces a lawsuit from a honey producer who alleges drifting dicamba so diminished pollen and nectar availability that he determined to maneuver his operation out of Arkansas. And 57 Texas winery homeowners are suing Bayer and BASF for no less than $560 million, claiming crop losses topping 95 p.c. The businesses dispute these claims.

    Dicamba use skyrocketed as soon as the EPA registered over-the-top merchandise from Monsanto, BASF, and DuPont starting in late 2016, permitting farmers to legally spray it within the warmth of summer season. The businesses and the EPA claimed these lower-volatility formulations would remedy the vapor-drift downside, however state agriculture departments had been quickly deluged with 2,700 reviews of harm to three.6 million acres of crops.

    This unprecedented destruction started to tear on the cloth of rural life. In contrast to the liquid particles of herbicides sprayed on a windy day, vaporized dicamba tends to maneuver unpredictably and go away its mark uniformly throughout complete fields, making it tough to pinpoint the supply. Crop insurance coverage received’t cowl the losses, so farmers are left seething. “There’s an increasing number of stress between neighbors,” Scheiman says.

    The EPA added some restrictions in late 2017, prohibiting use on windy days, for instance, and requiring person coaching. However weed scientists say these measures focused bodily drift and did nothing to deal with the actual downside: Dicamba is just too risky to spray over crops with out risking off-target harm. Court docket information present Monsanto scientists struggled to stop it from vaporizing and drifting of their checks, and the corporate didn’t make its herbicide obtainable for unbiased testing earlier than it went to market, which Bradley calls “a crimson flag.” (Bayer tells Audubon it “stands absolutely behind” its XtendiMax components.)

    Complaints saved piling up, however in late 2018 the Trump EPA prolonged its registration of over-the-top dicamba for 2 extra years. Its inspector normal later reported that political appointees improperly influenced that call. In 2020 the Ninth U.S. Circuit Court docket of Appeals dominated that, by downplaying the affect on farmers and the atmosphere, the approval violated federal pesticide regulation. But 4 months later the company re-registered dicamba by means of 2025. For the primary time it set cutoff dates: June 30 for soybeans; July 30 for cotton. “We have now reached a decision that’s good for our farmers and the environment,” stated Andrew Wheeler, then EPA administrator.

    The 2021 rising season proved in any other case. The EPA obtained claims of almost 3,500 incidents. The harm reached as much as 20 miles from the closest handled subject and into 242 counties the place endangered species reside. It reached fruit timber, peanuts, and backyard greens. It reached throughout yards and parks into the center of a nationwide wildlife refuge in Arkansas that gives a few of the continent’s most necessary waterfowl winter habitat. And it reached far, far past what the information advised. The EPA estimates that only one in 25 such incidents are ever reported.


    any of these incident reviews got here from Scheiman. A Lengthy Islander by delivery, he’s tailored properly to the South. He’d quite be too scorching than too chilly, and Arkansas obliges. But when Scheiman principally feels at residence after 17 years in Little Rock, amid pro-dicamba farmers he typically detects a chill even in summer season. In sure cities he leaves his Audubon cap within the automotive.

    For Scheiman and different environmentalists, direct impacts aren’t the principle fear, although one giant examine discovered a hyperlink to heightened most cancers threat for dicamba applicators, and the EPA just lately flagged a possible hazard to honeybees chronically uncovered. That’s coming from an company with a monitor file of downplaying chemical substances’ risks and an approval course of that’s inherently pocked with information gaps, critics say. Human well being dangers are often extrapolated from rodent research; Mallards and some different species sometimes stand in for all birds. “We have now an extremely unsure course of in the USA,” says Nathan Donley, Heart for Organic Variety environmental well being science director. “Sadly, when there’s uncertainty, it typically errs on the facet of threat.”

    Nonetheless, the EPA and its critics agree that the larger concern is what repeated dicamba publicity does to the vegetation upon which complete meals chains rely. “It’s the ripple impact, the demise by a thousand cuts,” says Lekha Knuffman, Nationwide Wildlife Federation senior agriculture program specialist. Even when a plant survives dicamba’s acute results, it could possibly be weakened and inclined to illnesses or pests. “We simply don’t know what the long-term, ecosystem-level implications are, however the indicators will not be trying good.”

    In 2020 Knuffman’s group and others issued a report on these misery alerts. One examine, it famous, discovered a local plant referred to as frequent boneset produced fewer flowers, flowered later, and attracted fewer pollinators after dicamba publicity. Different analysis confirmed that painted girl butterfly caterpillars that consumed dicamba-exposed vegetation had been notably smaller. Caterpillars are a staple for birds—it may take as much as 9,000 to lift a single Carolina Chickadee brood—so any discount of their availability or dietary worth is trigger for concern. Scientists have additionally discovered that dicamba reduces some vegetation’ seed manufacturing, shrinking one other key avian meals supply. The Mississippi Flyway, which greater than 325 migratory fowl species traverse, passes proper by means of the cropland the place dicamba harm is pronounced, the report famous.

    An untrained eye won’t discover dicamba’s delicate impacts, however tree harm tends to be extra apparent. “We see signs of harm at a lot of the locations we go,” says Kim Erndt-Pitcher, senior habitat and agriculture applications specialist with Prairie Rivers Community, an Illinois environmental nonprofit. From 2018 to 2021 she and volunteers found indicators of harm from growth-regulator herbicides in 188 plant species. Amongst those who examined constructive for dicamba publicity was the state champion put up oak, whose branches span 100 toes however have proven indicators of dieback in recent times. She says the widespread harm to oaks is particularly regarding as a result of they assist greater than 500 caterpillar species.

    Scheiman worries that as we speak’s naked branches and useless limbs could also be just the start—that the true toll of repeated publicity will reveal itself in time. “In hindsight, over years, you say, ‘There’s fewer timber round right here. The place did all of the cypress timber go?’ “

    He began the monitoring program to stop such a state of affairs. For 3 rising seasons starting in 2019, he and volunteers made 363 observations of obvious harm in 20 counties, many corroborated by tissue evaluation. The bothered websites included a forest residence to the Arkansas Delta’s solely recognized inhabitants of endangered Crimson-cockaded Woodpeckers. They documented oaks whose puckered foliage resembled boxing gloves, sycamores with cupped leaves the scale of cereal bowls, and signs on Virginia creeper, mulberries, pokeweed, and lots of different native vegetation acknowledged as necessary meals sources for birds.

    He took the findings to the Arkansas State Plant Board, which units pesticide coverage—and entered a maelstrom of lawsuits, soiled deeds, and dangerous blood.


    erry Fuller was in Little Rock when he realized his hay was on fireplace. A farmer and seed vendor in Poplar Grove, Fuller additionally chaired the Arkansas State Plant Board. He’d traveled to the capital in September 2020 to testify about dicamba on its behalf earlier than a legislative committee. Whereas he was there, somebody torched 367 bales. He felt sure it wasn’t a coincidence. A month earlier he’d spoken on the identical matter earlier than the identical physique. When he began two tractors the following morning, he discovered somebody had fed plastic into the oil fill tubes in a single day, destroying the engines. Altogether the vandalism price him some $80,000. Nobody was caught.

    Fuller was no anti-pesticide crusader. He sells dicamba and tolerant seeds at his dealership and thinks farmers ought to be capable to use it besides within the warmth of summer season. However he was appointed to the plant board in 2013 to characterize seed growers and, he says, do what he thought was proper. When the board obtained a file variety of dicamba-related complaints in 2017, he joined the unanimous vote to ban spraying after April 15: “It’s only a damaged product.”

    The board was an unbiased volunteer physique. The governor appointed eight members and commerce teams nominated 9. It had a proud, century-long historical past of constructing science-based selections and had set pragmatic guidelines for weedkillers, Fuller and others say.

    Then got here dicamba. Monsanto went on the offensive. It blamed harm on applicators who hadn’t adopted the byzantine label necessities. It denounced weed scientists who informed the board dicamba’s inherent volatility was principally in charge, and claimed Fuller was making an attempt to whip up public assist for a ban. Monsanto and pro-dicamba farmers, later joined by FarmVoice, a row-crop growers group, sued the board, arguing that the state structure solely licensed the governor to nominate members. Whereas Governor Asa Hutchinson has stated little about dicamba laws and declined to touch upon them to Audubon, “he was by no means a fan of proscribing dicamba,” says Fuller, a fellow Republican. “In actual fact, he labored blatantly the opposite means.”

    FarmVoice leaders attacked Fuller’s credibility, too, telling a legislative committee he’d “proven never-ending bias virtually to the purpose of vendetta.” Somebody put up indicators within the Delta: “Arkansas Pigweed Inhabitants Sponsored by Terry Fuller & Arkansas Plant Board.” He refused to be intimidated, however others grew reluctant to talk up; in 2020 a farmer informed a state inspector he wished to drop a crop harm criticism as a result of he obtained threats after submitting it.


    In 2020 a farmer informed a state inspector he wished to drop a crop harm criticism as a result of he obtained threats after submitting it.


    The passions and politicization on the board created fertile floor for a farmer’s petition in early 2021 to scrap the state’s cutoff on dicamba use—then Could 25—and comply with the EPA’s later deadlines. Farmers and anxious residents, together with Scheiman, spoke out towards the thought. In their detailed rebuttal, College of Arkansas scientists famous: “There are not any scientific outcomes that present dicamba can be utilized all year long in Arkansas with out considerably injuring crops.”

    But the board adopted the change. Arkansas recorded claims of greater than 758,000 acres of crop harm that rising season, probably the most of any state.

    The devastation, which may simply price a grower six figures, is driving farmers who don’t use dicamba to plant engineered crops. The EPA says solely about half of the dicamba-tolerant seeds planted in 2020 had been handled with the herbicide. Reed Storey, a farmer with a grasp’s diploma in weed science, is amongst those that plant engineered seeds however refuse to spray dicamba. “Individuals who tried to do proper in earlier years have the perspective, ‘Effectively, everyone else is doing it. It’s authorized to spray, so we’re going to spray it,’” he says. On a June go to his dicamba-proof cotton close to Turkey Scratch seems wholesome, however the non-tolerant soybeans in an adjoining subject are cupped and stunted. “I trusted EPA’s course of for years,” he says. “How did they permit this to come back about?”

    Storey and different critics now see little purpose to hope that Arkansas will return to regulating dicamba extra strictly than the EPA does. The state’s courts dominated that the governor has sole authority to nominate plant board members. His latest picks included a pacesetter of FarmVoice. Fuller and the others representing commerce teams misplaced their seats.

    After a lot consideration, Fuller determined to hunt one other seat—within the state Senate. “My household had two, three come-aparts over me working,” he says, as a result of public consideration from dicamba. He got here up quick in November in what he calls a traditionally protected district for Democrats. He tried to not make dicamba a marketing campaign problem, but it surely saved cropping up, and he saved talking his thoughts. “I’m too trustworthy for my very own good,” he says. “I can’t assist it.”


    In Mississippi, Missouri, Arkansas, and Tennessee, once-tidy crop rows have develop into clotted with Palmer amaranth, every plant waving its absurdly fecund seed heads like so many center fingers on the agrochemical trade. Lengthy hardened towards glyphosate, Palmer amaranth started displaying resistance to dicamba shortly after Xtend seeds hit the market.

    In 2021 Illinois researchers documented resistance in waterhemp, one other prolific pigweed. Troublingly, the examine vegetation had by no means been uncovered to dicamba. Any such adaptation threatens to render weeds resistant to a number of herbicides and any that is perhaps developed sooner or later. That’s a scary prospect, says Ford Baldwin, an unbiased weed scientist. “When you can’t management the weeds, you’re not going to develop the crop. And if we are able to’t develop the crop in the USA, who’s going to feed the world?”

    The scary actuality, Baldwin says, is that there is no such thing as a white knight approaching to avoid wasting the American farmer. Roundup Prepared crops had been so profitable that new herbicide analysis petered out. Advances in weed management over the previous three many years have come from engineering crops to tolerate previous chemical substances—an strategy that has bred as we speak’s superweeds. “The herbicide pipeline at this level is actually dry,” he says.

    More and more, researchers are exploring the extra holistic strategy some environmentalists and natural growers have lengthy advocated. “Diversifying weed administration to cut back reliance on herbicides is what we actually must construct extra resilient landscapes for farmers and for wildlife,” says Emily Could, a pesticide and pollinator conservation specialist on the nonprofit Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. Her group advocates for built-in weed administration, a broad time period for layering instruments like cowl crops, fireplace, and a machine referred to as the Harrington Seed Destructor. Whereas gaining reputation, it is going to require main analysis investments to interchange herbicides on a grand scale, and adopting it is going to seemingly make farming, and meals, dearer. Chemical substances are comparatively low-cost and handy; built-in weed administration is a number of work.

    Difficult because the options could also be, the inescapable query stays: Why inflict landscape-scale destruction if dicamba quickly received’t be capable to do its job? The EPA tells Audubon it “continues to be reviewing whether or not over-the-top dicamba can be utilized in a fashion that doesn’t pose unreasonable dangers to non-target crops and different vegetation.” It’s a course of that, given the newest harm reviews, might open the door for it to ban over-the-top dicamba.

    Nonetheless, a weary cynicism prevails amongst longtime observers. “EPA’s silence has been completely ridiculous,” says Donley. Finally, judges would possibly make the decision: A federal courtroom is contemplating a lawsuit towards the EPA filed by Donley’s group and others whose earlier problem led the Ninth Circuit to overturn dicamba’s registration in 2020.

    Driving a griddle-flat freeway to go to previous sampling websites, Scheiman argues the federal government has all of the proof it wants for a ban. “Now it’s a matter of, how a lot harm are you prepared to tolerate?”

    Killdeer erupt from the roadside as he passes. Daylight shimmers on flooded rice fields whose sinuous levees reveal the land’s delicate contours. What a reduction it might be to untrain his eye and overlook the cupped leaves, the useless limbs, the contemporary stumps dotting farmyards. To see the Delta the way it was when he first arrived. The way it could possibly be once more.

    This story initially ran within the Winter 2022 problem as “Bitter Harvest.” To obtain our print journal, develop into a member by making a donation as we speak.