What Even Is A Dodo? – The Bristol Dinosaur Undertaking

With regards to iconic animals of extinction, there are none higher recognized (or as ceaselessly name-dropped) than the Dodo. An animal so synonymous with the thought of being extinct that it even grew to become a saying, “As lifeless as a Dodo.” However should you communicate to most individuals and ask what they know concerning the Dodo, that’s just about the place the data begins and ends. Nonetheless, there’s a actual species behind the legend and it holds quite a lot of surprises.

The scientific identify of the Dodo is Raphus cucullatus. It’s a reputation that, on studying, makes you sure that the species wouldn’t have achieved fairly as a lot fame if it didn’t have that catchy nickname as nicely. The rationale for the identify Dodo comes from the Pokémon faculty of naming organisms; the identify we gave it’s the identify it gave itself. When first described by the sailors who found the birds, they talked concerning the low cooing noise they produced; a particular “Do-Do”.

Subsequently, the identify alone provides us a small clue about no less than one facet of the behaviour of the animal. Such tidbits are useful when there are not any residing examples for us to listen to at present. Sadly nevertheless, the one different common nugget of data we gleaned from the sailors of yore was that the chook tasted like rooster. And thus the rationale for his or her extinction is straight away obvious.

Numerous the behaviour of the animal could also be a thriller, however, seeing because the Dodo solely went extinct within the 17th century, a time when people had been already a number of centuries deep in our obsessive documenting of the world round us, you’d have thought that we’d have a reasonably good thought of what the animal appeared like no less than. A spherical, squat ball of fluffy feathers with a big beak and moderately easy wanting face. It’s a well-known picture that everybody has seen in some unspecified time in the future. It’s additionally lifeless improper.

A painting of a dodo showing a rotund build and surrounded by tropical birds.
seventeenth Century Catfishing – This 1626 portray by Roelandt Savery proves that artists ought to by no means be trusted. The tried credit score theft by G. Edwards reveals that perhaps no person could be.

The Dodo is a part of the pigeon household, having first developed from ancestors not too dissimilar to the pigeons we all know which arrived on the island of Mauritius pretty shortly after it first fashioned (roughly 8 million years in the past). Over millennia, as has occurred time and time once more within the historical past of birds discovering islands, their descendants misplaced the flexibility of flight, benefiting from the empty area of interest often occupied by mammals.

Sadly, because the idea of extinction was just about extraordinary within the 1600s, no person actually thought to maintain a lot Dodo materials for research. Nonetheless, we do have a couple of skeletons, pores and skin samples, and even, famously, a semi-mummified head within the Oxford Museum of Pure Historical past. Sufficient actually to review the animal and examine outcomes to the well-known work (which, whereas extra modern to the birds being alive, had been carried out by individuals who had seen precisely the identical variety of stay Dodos as us – none).

A medieval painting of a cat with a distinctly human face.
If you happen to nonetheless assume artists could be trusted to precisely reconstruct modern animals, I wish to direct your consideration to actually any historic portray of a cat

Time and time once more, research have proven that the chook was a lot leaner and extra upright than most depictions present. The ribcage was slimmer, and the legs extra muscular than stumpy. The truth is, the proof means that, if it wished to be, a Dodo could possibly be fairly nippy, scurrying across the forest flooring; removed from the oft-seen waddle. Not that this needs to be stunning seeing as we do have experiences from sailors of the time saying Dodos had been speedy and sometimes exhausting to catch; an account apparently missed by these historic painters.

As for the behaviour of the Dodo, CT scans of the cranium have proven that it wasn’t dumb. Although it needs to be stated, it wasn’t notably good both. Odds are the Dodo was most likely a chook of completely common intelligence, and there’s no disgrace in that. This comes after all with the caveat that measuring the mind measurement of extinct animals isn’t a precise proxy for intelligence, however it will probably no less than give grounds for a great estimate.

One factor that may be stated with extra certainty concerning the Dodo’s mind is that it appeared to have a reasonably enlarged olfactory bulb. That’s to say it most likely relied closely on its sense of scent to find meals; a function frequent in forest flooring dwellers who could need to rummage via the leaf-litter, the chook equal of a truffle pig.

So, if the actual animal was so completely different, how did it get caught with such a picture drawback? The reply, because it virtually by no means is in palaeontology, is Lewis Carroll.

A photograph of Lewis Carroll.
The scurge of palaeontology – daydreaming about making Triceratops into some sort of hideous slug (most likely)

A latest research led by Alexandra van der Geer studied how the depictions of Dodos have modified over historical past utilizing scientific methods often reserved for mapping the morphology of various species in an ecosystem. Right here the approach was turned on one species alone, and never on the stays themselves, however as an alternative on the historic information of drawings and animated representations of our poor Dodo.

What they discovered was a comparatively reserved unfold at first, adopted by a sudden exponential progress in morphological variety within the 20th century. They attributed this to the Dodo in Lewis Carroll’s ‘Alice in Wonderland’ bringing the chook again into the cultural zeitgeist following a interval of relative disinterest. As a tragic instance of the negligence as soon as proven to the world round us, the proof advised that within the years following the extinction of the chook folks merely stopped caring about it. As soon as it was gone it was, for some time no less than, completely forgotten.

A figure showing the growth in exaggerated cartoon depictions of Dodos in popular culture following the publication of Alice in Wonderland
The exponential progress of cartoon dodos in our lives (Determine from Van der Geer et al. 2021)

Again within the public eye, the Dodo was open to a myriad of interpretations with loads of creative licence. One factor about utilizing animals in cartoons is that, for them to be really expressive, it requires an exaggeration of their facial options. For residing animals this has no influence on public notion of the actual factor, as a result of, nicely, they will see them. Go to a zoo as soon as and also you’ll recognise that perhaps 1994’s ‘The Lion King’ isn’t a scientifically correct documentary.

However for the dodo, there was no such comparability available to be made. And so, the one level of reference in existence was that cartoonish fluffball in movies, TV, and comedian strips. The seed of the picture was planted and thus it grew.

On the planet of wildlife, the Dodo has actually suffered greater than most with a PR drawback. Maybe depicting this animal as clumsy, dim-witted, and destined for failure is a approach of assuaging our personal collective guilt for the human actions which brought about its extinction. Claiming it was doomed from the beginning, a mistake of nature; really, consuming all of them inside a century of first discovering them was the appropriate factor to do, a kindness.

A group of dodos around a tree stump with three watermelons. From the film Ice Age.
The collective guilt of humanity as depicted in Dodos from the Oscar nominated 2002 think-piece ‘Ice Age’

Whatever the method through which it’s remembered, it could possibly be claimed that it’s a good factor that this species is remembered in any respect. Arguably the Dodo is barely current in frequent data as a result of it’s lifeless, a stage of fame far higher than it might presumably have achieved in life (except after all it was a selfie darling for Instagram – taking a look at you Quokka). And fortunately slowly however certainly the data of the Dodo’s true look can be spreading. Although it must be stated, the Dodos themselves would probably discover this a reasonably slim silver lining towards the heavy black cloud of all of them being lifeless.

A modern reconstruction of a Dodo showing a sleeker figure.
A extra correct fashionable reconstruction of a Dodo by ornithologist Michael Hanson. Unforetunately no reconstruction is correct sufficient to undo extinction.

Rhys Charles is the Engagement Officer for the Earth Sciences division of the College of Bristol, and has headed the Bristol Dinosaur Undertaking since 2016. (@tweetodontosaur)

Article edited by Sophie Pollard


Claessens, L., Meijer, H., & Hume, J.P. (2016) The morphology of the Thirioux dodos. Journal of Vertebrate Palaeontology. 35, 29-187

Van der Geer, A.A.E., et al. (2021) The altering face of the dodo (Aves: Columbidae: Raphus cucullatus): iconography of the Walghvogel of Mauritius. Historic Biology. 34, 648-657

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