Skip to content

Revealing the Range in “The Highest Kingdom of Anolis” – Anole Annals


    A view of the Andean scrubland, the main habitat of the lizards of the Anolis heterodermus group.  Rafael Moreno

    View of the Andean scrubland, the principle habitat of the lizards of the Anolis heterodermus group. Credit: Rafael Moreno.

    A number of years in the past, once I started my biology research, I used to be taking a stroll in an Andean scrubland close to my hometown, Bogotá, and whereas admiring the twisted shapes of the shrub branches, I seen a small bright-green elongated spot on a department, which stood out from the encircling vegetation. The spot seemed like an altered imaginative and prescient produced by entheogenic substances. As I approached the spot, my nervousness elevated as a result of it was slowly rotating across the small department whereas I used to be getting nearer. However once I was shut sufficient to establish it, my nervousness ceased. It was not a hallucination, however a lizard, an Anolis heterodermus!

    Some years later, my nervousness returned once I thought of the way forward for these lizards because of the advance of a big metropolis hungry for concrete. We determined to analyze it by attempting to doc the dynamics of populations in scrublands surrounding Bogotá. Though town continued its inexorable development, it appeared that these lizards had a number of methods to face the loss and fragmentation of their habitat, however provided that the city improvement onslaught was not too sturdy. Thus, my nervousness ceased, however solely partially.

    To describe the phenotypic variation in heterodermus group

    A small pattern of the massive phenotypic range in A. heterodermus y A. richteri. Credit: Rafael Moreno.

    And I say partially as a result of whereas I captured, marked, and recaptured these lizards, I additionally questioned why one species may exhibit such a disproportionate number of kinds, sizes, and colours. I calmed down when realized that Emmett Dunn and James Lazell most likely felt the identical when dealing with that vast phenotypic range in addition to different researchers who, with the appearance of the molecular period, expressed that range in what we all know immediately because the species advanced. Following the concepts of the brand new molecular period, we studied that species advanced and located a minimum of three impartial evolutionary lineages in a really small geographic space. Nevertheless, the uncertainty of the disproportionate variation in colours and shapes remained, so we determined to face it and tried to disclose the range of that species advanced that the Colombian biologist Miguel Méndez fantastically known as “The best kingdom of Anolis.

    relationships among species

    The relationships amongst some species of anoles of the heterodermus group. Determine modified from Moreno-Arias et al. (2023).

    In our final analysis “Revealing anole range within the highlands of the Northern Andes: New and resurrected species of the Anolis heterodermus species group,” the duty of gathering completely different strains of proof was simple on paper because of the many individuals supported us (Anthony Herrel, Juan Manuel Daza and Belisario Cepeda and different faculties that present specimens, tissues, and images of the species), however organizing and analyzing the information was not really easy, and it took us a number of years to do it. We expanded the molecular sampling, together with different species of the “kingdom” (extra formally the clade Phenacosurus), and documented a minimum of 9 independently advanced lineages. We recognized teams of lizards primarily based on their morphometry, combining lizards with short-to-long legs, thin-to-wide toes, and small to massive our bodies.

    To describe the shapes of crowns in some species

    Crowns of some species of heterodermus group. Credit:  A. quimbaya Wilmar Bolívar, remaining species Rafael Moreno.

    We additionally recognized teams primarily based on scale counts that mixed lizards with extra or fewer scales on their head and dorsum, and teams of lizards primarily based on their scale sample that mixed lizards with U or V-shaped crowns, rows of scales of various sizes beneath their lips, and steady or discontinuous nuchal crests. Though much less clear than the earlier strains of proof, the physique shade sample ranged from lizards with a predominance of uniform shade patterns to lizards with lovely shade combos. Probably the most fascinating grouping was the one primarily based on the colour sample of the dewlap, which was close-matched with the geographical distribution of lizards and their evolutionary historical past.

    Abstract of the phenotypic options and geographic distribution of the anoles of the heterodermus group. Determine modified from Moreno-Arias et al. (2023).

    After gathering and analyzing completely different strains of proof, we examined their correspondence with the evolutionary historical past of the species. We discovered a low diploma of correspondence between physique coloration sample, morphometrics, and molecular proof, however a better diploma of correspondence between scalation sample, dewlap shade sample, molecular proof, and geography. This correspondence allowed us to assist taxonomic novelties and to hypothesize the diversification of the species contemplating geological and environmental adjustments related to the uplift of the Andes in northern South America.

    Salto de Tequendama waterfall. Credit: Rafael Moreno.

    These taxonomic novelties are summarized in 9 lineages that correspond to 4 beforehand described species, the resurrection of a species, A. richteri, which had been thought of a synonym of A. heterodermus, two new species for science, and two lineages pending description. The 2 new species are paying homage to our pre-Columbian historical past: the title of A. tequendama sp. nov. derives from a sacred place crucial within the cosmogony of the Muisca ethnicity (a human group inhabited the Cundiboyacense plateau and the place a minimum of three species of “The best kingdom of Anolis may be discovered) and the place a waterfall known as Salto de Tequendama is situated. In response to Muisca mythology, the waterfall was created by a Bochica deity to empty the flood that the Muisca individuals suffered because of their grievances towards the Chibchachum deity. The title A. quimbaya sp. nov. derives from a recognition of the Quimbaya ethnicity, which was well-known for its abilities in goldsmithing and which, regardless of its ferocity in fight, grew to become extinct after the Spanish colonization across the 12 months 1600.

    Within the try to reveal range in “the very best kingdom of Anolis,” two lineages stay unnamed, to which we at present have restricted molecular info and nearly no information of their genetic and phenotypic range.

    Now, in a hotter world, we will entry territories as soon as forbidden by our nation’s lengthy armed battle, but additionally can entry the insatiable starvation for financial improvement…my nervousness returns, and new questions run by my head: what number of extra will inhabit the very best kingdom of Anolis? Will we be capable to know them earlier than they disappear?

    A Spanish model of this publish may be learn at site.



    Moreno-Arias R, Urbina-Cardona N (2013).
    Dunn E (1944).
    Lazell JD (1969). page/4295065#web page/541/mode/1up
    Castañeda MR, de Queiroz Ok (2013).
    Poe S et al (2017).
    Vargas-Ramírez M, Moreno-Arias RA (2014).
    Méndez-Galeano MA et al. (2020).
    Moreno-Arias RA et al. (2023).

    Newest posts by Rafael Moreno (see all)