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The Why Of Sauron – The Bristol Dinosaur Challenge


    Enable me a brief digression into one thing nerdy. It’s area of interest and bizarre however I slipped in some science alongside the way in which. While doing a little bit of studying for one more mission the opposite day I stumbled throughout a curious hyperlink between two very totally different worlds; the science of Palaeontology, and the fictional antagonist of Center-Earth. I subsequently went on to find that hyperlink once more, after which once more. All of which led me to ask; why does Sauron maintain popping up in palaeo?

    For these unaware, Sauron is a personality created by JRR Tolkien, he’s the truth is the eponymous Lord within the Lord of the Rings, and in the entire in depth writings of character lore for Sauron, not as soon as is there any point out that he’s a eager newbie palaeontologist. Actually, seeing as Arda (the Tolkien title for Earth) is written as solely being a couple of tens of 1000’s of years outdated, it may very well be argued that palaeontology doesn’t even exist in Center Earth. I suppose they don’t want dinosaurs seeing as they’ve precise dragons.

    An extinct stem-bird lineage from Arda, seen right here hoarding gold probably as a mating show, like fashionable Bower Birds.

    In our actuality although, we’ve got fossils going spare, and a seemingly limitless provide of recent species of extinct creatures being found, and our must categorise every thing into neat little orders implies that these new discoveries want names. Normally the animals are named after some descriptive options of their anatomy (take our personal Thecodontosaurus, which implies ‘Socket-toothed Lizard’ for instance). Nonetheless, generally scientists prefer to get a bit extra fantastical and ingenious with names.

    This was the case when a peculiar fossil resurfaced for description in 2012. The specimen was a single bone from a cranium of what appeared to be a big theropod dinosaur. Particularly, this bone was the frontal, which is positioned simply above the attention socket.

    One bone to convey all of them and in taxonomy bind them. Determine from Cau et al. 2012.

    It could not look like a lot (as a result of it isn’t actually) however palaeontology is a science that often has little to go on however probably the most fragmentary proof, and on this case the researchers deemed that there have been sufficient distinctive options to declare the fragment as coming from a hitherto unknown species. An historical terror, having misplaced most of its bodily type and now recognized solely from a chunk of eye socket, it was dubbed Sauroniops, actually that means ‘The Eye of Sauron’. The title does have a pleasant ring to it.

    The only Sauroniops bone originated from the famed Kem Kem beds of Morocco. This formation is well-known for its assemblage of Cretaceous fossils, together with fish, crocodiles, dinosaurs, and pterosaurs. The fossil the world is most famed for is undoubtedly Spinosaurus, the biggest (and doubtless most controversial) theropod dinosaur ever discovered.

    Sauroniops was a Carcharodontosaur, one other group of enormous theropods, named for his or her shark-like enamel. Different members of this group have distinctive forehead ridges, slim snouted skulls, and sharp claws (which look to have been simpler than the lowered arms of T. rex).

    A life reconstruction of comparable species, Carcharadontosaurus. Sauroniops would have regarded the identical however for having an amazing eye, lidless, and wreathed in flame. Illustration by Fred Wierum.

    Primarily based on the scale of the lone fossil, Sauroniops exhibits the over-engineered forehead you’d anticipate from this dinosaur group. It additionally offers us an estimate in measurement of as much as about 10m in size, although that is clearly largely hypothesis based mostly on related species.

    Although not a Spinosaur, Sauroniops has nonetheless loved its fair proportion of palaeo controversy. Being recognized from solely a single bone will all the time imply doubts can be made about whether or not there may be sufficient proof to assert it as a novel species. The primary arguments in opposition to it state that it’s probably only a youthful particular person of Carcharodontosaurus, which can be present in the identical location.

    It’s a cheap argument, as ontogenetic variation (how animals seem totally different as they age) is definitely neglected in a science the place we often don’t have anything to go on however skeletal fragments. It’s even becoming for Sauron, who too has a historical past of not being recognised as his true self (I’m on to you Annatar). Although a overview of Kem Kem Carcharadontosaur materials in 2022 retained Sauroniops’ place as a legitimate taxon, so it as a species stays secure for now at the least.

    Naming discoveries after popular culture figures is hardly uncommon, and it’s one thing that our personal palaeo group at Bristol is responsible of indulging in. Lately our resident scientists have named an historical lizard-like animal after a spell from Harry Potter (Clevosaurus sectumsempra), and a vicious bobbit worm after the bassist from the dying steel band Cannibal Corpse (Websteroprion).

    Pictured: both the extinct bobbit worm or the bassist from Cannibal Corpse. I’m undecided which. Paintings by James Ormiston.

    It’s not simply palaeontology both, geneticists get in on this act too. Within the scientific literature, researchers discussing the mysteries of developmental biology often discuss with a gene-coded protein by its real official title; Sonic Hedgehog.

    Gotta go quick

    Sauroniops represents what I suppose you can name probably the most ‘official’ hyperlink between Tolkien’s Darkish Lord of Mordor, and the science of palaeontology. However it’s removed from the one time these two seemingly disparate worlds have mixed.

    Way back to 1969, simply fifteen years after the publishing of the Lord of the Rings, this union was first fashioned within the Marvel Comedian Ebook universe. That’s proper, palaeontology, Tolkien, and Marvel; we actually are venturing into some form of holy trinity of nerdom.

    Enable me to introduce you to Dr Karl Lykos. Not like different medical doctors we’ve talked about on this weblog previously, Dr Lykos is just not a palaeontologist, he’s a hypnotherapist who, while nonetheless solely a younger boy, travelled to Tierra del Fuego, the archipelago on the southernmost tip of South America. It was right here that Lykos was attacked by a residing Pteranodon, which had travelled up from deep within the primal Savage Lands of Antarctica to show him right into a vampire.

    In case that final sentence didn’t make it clear, Dr Karl Lykos a fictional resident of what comedian e-book followers name Earth-616. That vampiric pterosaur chunk transforms him into some human-pterosaur hybrid, resulting in the inevitable flip to evil and embracing of a supervillain title; Sauron.

    Earlier than 1969 the vampiric properties of Pteranodon assaults have been totally unknown to science.

    Canonically he chooses the title Sauron right here particularly in honour of Tolkien’s creation, as a reputation match for his new evil state. However any parallels to the precise character appear to start and finish there. As for the connections to precise palaeontology, they’re simply as tenuous.

    The Pteranodon type Dr Lykos takes is supposedly half human, so I suppose you possibly can forgive among the inaccuracies, although I’m nonetheless going to level them out. Beginning with the truth that Pteranodons had particular musculature to permit them to fly successfully which, while strongly constructed, doesn’t actually line up with the human preparations. So you possibly can most likely write off any actual Pteranodon having the spectacular washboard abs Sauron (the non-Tolkien one) often places on show.

    We might by no means know if Tolkien’s Sauron additionally had spectacular washboard abs. So far as I do know that was omitted from the Appendices.

    Likewise the wings of Pteranodon, as for all pterosaurs, are supported by a extremely advanced and modified finger (the generally used colloquial moniker of pterodactyl actually means ‘Wing Finger’). This meant that the completely free to maneuver palms of Sauron (with opposable thumbs and all) wouldn’t have been a function on the true factor.

    Additionally Pteranodons didn’t have a mouthful of razor-sharp enamel; that they had toothless beaks, which is a standard adaptation of flying animals to assist them stored their physique weight down (see: all residing birds). The fictional Sauron is often proven as having an extended tail too, a function which had been lengthy since misplaced by Pteranodons and different massive pterosaurs as they advanced.

    So palaeontological accuracy will not be the strongpoint of this different fictional Sauron, however at the least it did give us one of many best memes to have come out of the graphic novel world.

    I’ve by no means learn a Marvel comedian in my life, and but I nonetheless see this picture about fifty occasions a yr.

    When you’re nonetheless following me down this obscure rabbit gap, enable me to set the scene for the third hyperlink I stumbled upon. It’s 1994, you’ve simply completed re-watching your VHS copy of Jurassic Park now overdue from Blockbuster, BoyzIIMen is on the radio, and also you’re assured that each one dinosaurs had scales and also you’d by no means be confirmed flawed on that reality.

    To have a good time life being this good you’re going to take your change to the closest Video Arcade to play your favorite new sport, ‘Primal Rage’. It is a Mortal Kombat-esque combating sport the place you tackle the persona of what can loosely be described as prehistoric fauna. You attain the character choose display and choose your go-to MVP, his title, is Sauron.

    Sauron is a yellow T. rex with purple stripes, marking the second time that Tyrannosaurus has been reconstructed with these two colors (although Sauron is a bit much less kid-friendly than Barney – I’m undecided Sauron would sing in a circle with me in any respect). He stands upright, propped up by his tail, in an identical pose to how dinosaurs have been reconstructed round 100 years in the past when the primary skeletal mounts have been debuted (and kinda Barney once more I assume). It’s a pose we now know to be horribly flawed, and loads much less horizontal than can be best.

    Fairly certain this was precisely what Tolkien envisioned when he first wrote the character of Sauron.

    Identical to Tolkien’s non-dinosaur model, this Sauron is immortal to be untouched by the consequences of passing years, although the price of that is that he’s all the time hungry for people, who view him as a god… and wish to get eaten… Look, the plot of this sport is somewhat odd. The continents are inexplicably rearranged to appear like a fire-breathing dinosaur cranium, scientific accuracy or sanity is just not it’s robust level.

    I might go into extra particulars about how this online game character is much like the literary Sauron and the way it all connects to palaeontology, however I’ve suppose we’ve all reached our restrict of endurance with this area of interest deep dive of an article, and as an alternative I’m going to chop it brief with a fifteen-minute playthrough video I discovered on YouTube of somebody finishing the arcade model of the sport as Sauron. I feel all of us knew the article was all the time going to finish like this.

    Rhys Charles is the Engagement Officer for the Earth Sciences division of the College of Bristol, and has headed the Bristol Dinosaur Challenge since 2016. (@tweetodontosaur)

    Article edited by Ben Griffin.


    Cau, A., Vecchia, F.M.D., & Fabbri, M. (2012) Proof of a brand new carcharodontosaurid from the Higher Cretaceous of Morocco. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 57: 661 – 665

    Paterna, A., & Cau, A. (2022) New big theropod materials from the Kem Kem Compound Assemblage (Morocco) with implications on the range of the mid-Cretaceous carcharodontosaurids from North Africa. Historic Biology. 1 – 9

    Klein, C. et al. (2015) A particular Late Triassic microvertebrate fissure fauna and a brand new species of Clevosaurus (Lepidosauria: Rhynchocephalia) from Woodleaze Quarry, Gloucestershire, UK. Proceedings of the Geologists Affiliation. 126: 402 – 416

    Eriksson, M.E., Parry, L.A., & Rudkin, D.M. (2017) Earth’s oldest ‘Bobbit worm’ — gigantism in a Devonian eunicidan polychaete. Scientific Experiences. 7: 43061